Dove: Brand Profile
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has grown from a US-only soap bar into one of Unilever's biggest global brands. It is now the world's #1 personal cleansing product, and the #3 business in the Anglo-Dutch company's portfolio behind Knorr
and Lipton. During the 1990s, the group began to extend the brand across the complete
personal care spectrum, and Dove now encompasses a wide range of products from bar soap to facial cleansers, and from deodorants
to shampoo-conditioners. Dove has attracted widespread media attention since 2004 for its marketing. That year, Ogilvy &
Mather launched a series of ads for Dove portraying the "real beauty" of ordinary women. The brand competes fiercely
with Procter & Gamble's Olay, Beiersdorf's
Nivea and Johnson & Johnson's Neutrogena, all of which have a similarly broad product
range. A new line of Dove for Men products was launched in 2010.
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Selected Dove advertising
Dove is Unilever's biggest personal care brand, and certainly one of the group's most high profile brands
in recent years, as the result of a clever marketing campaign that has consistently generated headlines and accolades since 2004. Originally positioned in the 1990s as a rival to P&G's Olay, Dove has since moved into less directly competitive markets such as
deodorant and haircare, and has established a unique niche as arguably the beauty industry's most down-to-earth, or "real"
masterbrand. In 2012, Kantar's Brandz ranking placed Dove as the world's 4th most valuable personal care brand, with an estimated value of $4.7bn. The less widely accepted Brand Finance ranking of beauty products ranked it #7 with a value of $5.0bn. Both researchers use widely different criteria in their measurements.
Dove's sales were around E3bn globally in 2011, according to figures released by Unilever at the end of that year, and the brand is available in around 100 countries worldwide. Growth has been rapid and dynamic over the past 20 years. At the start
of the 1990s, the brand existed only as a soap bar in the US. In 1991, thanks to several years of relentless and aggressive
marketing, Dove propelled Unilever into the position of the #1 bar soap manufacturer in the US, toppling Procter & Gamble. Over
the next ten years, Unilever progressively rolled the brand out worldwide, introducing a host of spin-off products. The steepest growth occurred between 1998 and 2002 with the launch of Dove-branded deodorants and haircare products, and a massive global rollout. In 2002 alone, for example, the Dove haircare range was
in 31 new countries around the globe. Sales topped E1bn in 2000, and E2bn three years later.
The Dove brand now serves as an umbrella for products in four main groups - bar & bodywash, deodorants, skincare lotions and haircare - and more than 100 different lines including facial wipes, firming lotions, shampoos,
body washes, anti-ageing cleansers, skin nourishing treatments, underarm deodorant, and several varieties of bar soap. The main
Dove brand has also given rise to a set of spin-off ranges such as Dove Firming (to reduce the appearance of cellulite), Dove Silk
(a moisturising range containing pure silk), Dove Fresh Touch, Dove Pro-Age (for "mature" skin and hair), and Dove
Summer Glow (with self-tanning agents), launched at the end of 2006. In particular, Dove has attacked segments already dominated by other manufacturers, such as facial skincare, haircare and
deodorants. This has led to an escalating rivalry with Procter & Gamble's Olay and Johnson & Johnson's Neutrogena. Both
those products have reciprocated with their own rolling series of brand extensions. In 2001 the group introduced Dove
anti-perspirants in the US, and a shampoo and conditioner line in Asia. Dove haircare products arrived in the US in late 2002,
backed with a $110 marketing launch, as well as 30 other countries around the globe. In 2003, the company launched Dove Essential
Nutrients facial and body moisturizers in the US market, with a further $50m of spend. A new line of Dove for Men products was launched in 2010, and Dove Hair Damage Therapy in 2011.
Dove remains the leading bar and liquid soap brand in the US, and the clear market leader in body wash with around 24% share. However Olay remains the leader in facial skincare and
moisturizers. It was quicker to spin off new products in the early 1990s, and as a result the full Olay range outsells the Dove
range in the US, although Dove is bigger in the global market. Olay leads by a small margin in the body wash category, although
its lead is much reduced since the mid-1990s. Dove's top five markets in 2002 were the US, Japan, UK, Korea and Brazil. Around 60%
of combined sales were generated by Dove cleansing products, with the remaining revenues more or less equally split between hair,
deodorant and care products. [see Unilever's Dove
Report 2002 for more].
Recent stories from Adbrands Weekly Update:
Adbrands Weekly Update 21st Jan 2014: Ads of the Week: "Selfie". The latest campaign from Ogilvy & Mather for Dove marks the 10th anniversary of the Real Beauty campaign. This short film from documentary filmmaker Cynthia Wade forms the core of a much wider collection of spots featuring each of the participants in
more detail. As you might expect from such a project, it's sweet and moving, a little bit sad at times, but ultimately uplifting. Well done to all the girls and their moms who took part for their bravery and honesty.
Adbrands Weekly Update 27th Jun 2013: The Ogilvy network earned a place in the history books with a record haul of metal at this year's Cannes Lions advertising festival. Until this year, no agency had ever taken home more than 100 Lions in a single year. Ogilvy finished the week with no less than 155, including four Grand Prix and 37 Gold. Over the weekend
it collected the prestigious Titanium Grand Prix for Ogilvy Brazil's Real Beauty Sketches for Dove, adding to the three Grand Prix already snapped up during the week.
Adbrands Weekly Update 18th Apr 2013: Ads of the Week: "Real Beauty Sketches". The new campaign from Ogilvy (in this case from the Brazilian office) for Dove's ongoing Real Beauty project is based around a simple but brilliant idea. FBI-trained forensic artist Gil Zamora asks six unseen women to describe themselves to him; and then asks strangers to describe the same women from an objective viewpoint. He does drawings based on both. The differences between the way the women see themselves and the way they are perceived by others are sometimes
startling and quite moving.
Adbrands Weekly Update 28th Mar 2013: Ads of the Week: "Wrong Shampoo". The new Dove Men+Care spot from Ogilvy Brazil is just wonderful. There's a lesson here too, guys. Don't use your wife or girlfriend's shampoo.
Adbrands Weekly Update 1st Nov 2012: Silvia
Lagnado, best known as the marketer who put the Dove brand on the map for
Unilever, is leaving her current role as global CMO at Bacardi. Her future plans have not been announced, and nor has her successor at the drinks group.
More from Adbrands Weekly Update
According to Advertising Age/TNS figures, Dove has been Unilever's highest-spending brand in the US for several years, with
measured media expenditure in 2011 of almost $188m, more than three times any other group brand, and representing more than a quarter of the group's total measured ad spend. The brand's marketing, presented under the banner of Campaign
for Real Beauty, and conceived by Ogilvy & Mather, has generated headlines and accolades around the world. For the UK
launch of Dove Body Firming in 2004, for example, Ogilvy recruited a group of real women with normal, non-supermodel shapes and persuaded them
to strip down to underwear for the cameras. The resulting posters were enormously popular, and were adapted locally for each
international market. The same concept has been extended across the other products in the range.
In 2006, promotional film Evolution, created by Ogilvy Canada, generated considerable media attention for the brand and went on
to win a Grand Prix in the film category at the 2007 Cannes Lions advertising festival. A follow-up, Onslaught, was less well
received. Unilever was subsequently caught in a media crossfire, accused of hypocrisy because its advertising for another brand,
Axe/Lynx, tended to present women as little more than sex objects, apparently contradicting the "real beauty" message
put forward by Dove's marketing. In 2008, the brand was again the subject of unflattering headlines after comments in an interview
with a celebrated photographic artist who had worked on elements of the campaign were misrepresented to suggest that images of the
real beauty women had been retouched. This was strongly denied by all concerned with the ads. Later in 2008, there were reports
that, despite the huge volumes of PR associated with "real beauty", it had not led to a proportionate increase in sales.
Mid-year, Unilever was said to be considering a change in its marketing to focus once again on the core product values rather that
a more indirect emotional message. Instead, the "real beauty" concept has evolved into a campaign to support self-esteem among girls and younger women through charitable initiatives. One of the more high-profile recent initiatives was the 2012 launch of The Dove Ad Makeover, an online campaign originated by Ogilvy in Australia and the UK, to crowd out Facebook ads that prey on women's insecurities with
Dove-sponsored "feel good" messages.
In early 2009, Unilever began exploring a new strategy in China, where the "real beauty" concept had never caught
consumer interest. The group acquired local rights to the format of American comedy series Ugly Betty, and remade it for
Chinese television (as "Ugly Wudi") with heavy product placement of Dove and other group brands. The creation of a new
advertising campaign for the Dove brand was a key plot point running through several episodes.
There were signs by mid 2007 that Dove's rapid growth had begun to slow dramatically in the US. According to figures from
researcher Information Resources, US sales rose only just over 1% in the year to August 2007, compared to growth of 12.5% and over
10% for the two previous periods. Additional launches as well as heavy promotional spending prompted what appears to have been a new surge in sales, certainly in the US, in 2011. According to figures from SymphonyIRI, combined US sales for
the 52 weeks to Oct 2011 rose by almost 10% year-on-year to nearly $690m.
Fernando Machado, based in London, is VP, global brand development, Dove Skin;
Santiago Iturralde is global VP, Dove Deo. Other marketers include Shweta Harit (global brand director, Dove Hair), Ali Fisher (brand manager, Dove Skin UK), Sandra Ferreira (brand manager, Dove Hair UK), Steve Miles
(SVP, global marketing, Dove UK), Laurent Boury (global senior brand director, Dove Wash North America), Kate Buttery (global brand manager, Dove Deo UK), Katie Adams (senior brand manager, Dove Wash UK), Jocelyn Hsieh (senior
global brand development manager, Dove Wash), Sharon Addington (global senior brand manager, Dove Bar US), Brent Shakeshaft (VP, global marketing, Dove cleansing), and Rob Candelino (director, US skincare marketing). Santiago Hunt (global brand director, Dove Men+Care), Rachel Mattey
(global brand development manager, Dove Men+Care)
The formula for Dove was originally developed during World War II. It was actually designed for the US Army, which required a detergent for soldiers that would lather with sea-water. After the war, scientists at Lever Brothers continued to experiment with the formulation in a bid to reduce the
scum produced by ordinary detergents. However the original product was found to have an unfortunate irritant effect on skin. To counter that, Lever's researchers added stearic acid, one of the main ingredients in cold cream, to the mix. The resulting combination, part-skin cream and part-soap,
offered huge marketing opportunities, and it was launched in the US in 1956, priced at twice the cost of the company's existing Lux soap. The accompanying advertising, from what was then the agency Hewitt Ogilvy Benson & Mather, promised that "Dove creams your skin while you wash" and
"Soap is suddenly old-fashioned". That approach proved hugely successful, quickly establishing Dove as a core household brand. It was marketed primarily for facial cleansing, with that the fact that it doesn't dry out the skin as its key selling point. "Real women" were
first used in its marketing from the late 1960s, endorsing its benefits for what was supposedly a hidden camera.
In 1965, Unilever attempted to broaden its portfolio by extending the Dove brand into dishwashing liquid in a bid to compete with Palmolive dishwashing liquid which claimed to "soften hands while you do dishes". However the new line was not a success, and the company dropped its price.
This created something of a contradiction for the brand, since Dove bar-soap was positioned as a premium beauty product, while Dove dishwashing liquid was perceived as a low-price household cleaner. These two conflicting messages seemed to confuse consumers and gradually the product began to lose
market share, battered by competition from Dial and another Unilever brand, Caress. Although Dove soap had already been launched successfully in Canada, plans to introduce the product in Europe were abandoned in the light of its declining US sales.
In 1979, however, Dove received a huge boost when an influential independent survey from the University of Pennsylvania concluded that Dove dried and irritated skin significantly less than other soaps. This encouraged Unilever to mount an extensive marketing programme promoting the brand to
dermatologists. (Even as recently as 2004, Unilever claimed that 25% of Dove users said they bought the soap because a doctor recommended it). On the back of this medical endorsement, Dove's sales soared once more. In 1986, the brand became the best-selling soap brand in the US, over-taking Dial and
New competitive pressures came in 1990. That year, the patent on the primary synthetic ingredient in Dove expired, allowing competitors to leap into the synthetic cleanser market for the first time. Procter & Gamble was the most aggressive of these new rivals, borrowing the synthetic cleanser
technology to create an Oil of Olay beauty bar with moisturizing properties similar to Dove. After testing in 1991 and 1992, the Olay bar was launched in 1993, followed by a hugely successful body wash in 1994. Unilever countered a year later with their own Dove body wash. However, this proved a big
disappointment. Even Unilever's own developers later conceded that their product was inferior to the Olay body wash, more like a shampoo than a soap. After a series of reformulations, an improved and arguably superior Dove body wash was introduced in 1999.
However that year, bolstered by a string of further product extensions, Olay brand sales overtook Dove in the US. In response the Anglo-Dutch company began developing a new brand line that would combine Dove's moisturizing and cleansing properties with "skin nourishing" Vitamin E. The
Nutrium range was introduced in 2000, initially as a body wash and later as a soap bar. A flood of further brand extensions followed as Dove entered the deodorant, haircare and facial cleaning markets. The launch of the "real women" campaign in 2004, and its evolution into the Campaign For
Real Beauty, gave further support to Dove's sales.
In 2008, however, Unilever was forced to deal with a series of PR embarrassments. The first came in the form of a backlash against the new Dove "Onslaught" film that sought to attack media stereotypes of women. A number of critics pointed out the hypocrisy involved in such a stand
considering the images of women portrayed in ads for another Unilever product, Axe. A few months later, celebrated photographic printer and retoucher Pascal Dangin seemed to suggest that he had been involved in retouching some of the "real beauty" images in the Dove Pro-Age campaign,
photographed by Annie Leibovitz. He was reported to have asked an interviewer from The New Yorker, "Do you know how much retouching was on that? But it was great to do, a challenge, to keep everyone's skin and faces showing the mileage but not looking unattractive." All the parties
involved in the production of the images were quick to deny that any such changes had been made. A third attack was coordinated by environmental agency Greenpeace which launched a campaign against the tacit support given by Unilever and other manufacturers to the destruction of rainforest to allow
for additional palm oil plantations.
Last full revision 21st May 2013
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