Pfizer is the world's biggest drug company, with a huge global sales force and a strong portfolio of "blockbuster" prescription drugs. (Rival Johnson & Johnson is larger by total healthcare revenues). The group became a household name in the late 1990s with its development of the break-through erectile dysfunction drug Viagra, which was at the time the world's fastest-selling pharmaceutical product. The company went on to strengthen its position with two ambitious acquisitions, snapping up partners Warner Lambert and Pharmacia to order to tighten its grip on key product Lipitor, which topped Viagra to become, for several years, the world's biggest selling drug. However the market became considerably tougher during 2005 and even Pfizer began to feel the effects of competition and increased scrutiny from regulators. In 2006, it sold its huge non-prescription healthcare division to Johnson & Johnson in order to narrow its focus on higher-margin pharmaceutical products. Yet that deal was subsequently perceived to have been a serious strategic error, removing the benefits of consumer healthcare's steady cash flow. As a result, in 2009, Pfizer boosted its pharma portfolio and re-entered OTC with a $68bn takeover of rival Wyeth. In 2014, its target was British rival AstraZeneca, but that group evaded capture with a vigorous opposition campaign. Instead, Pfizer turned its attention in 2015 to generics developer Hospira and also agreed to acquire Allergan for an astronomical $160bn in cash and debt. However that mammoth deal was eventually abandoned in 2016 as a result of changes in US tax rules.
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Adbrands Weekly Update 17th Nov 2016: In a new move to simplify its structure, Pfizer is said to be considering the sale or spin-off of its consumer healthcare division, with brands including Advil, Centrum and Chapstick. The story was first reported by Reuters, though sources said that such a move was by no means certain. The group's current OTC business was acquired as part of Wyeth in 2009. Three years earlier it had sold an even bigger consumer healthcare division to Johnson & Johnson, citing the desire to focus on pharmaceutical products. Pfizer is now once again seeking ways of streamlining its business to focus on higher margin products. A plan to split into two separate entities, one housing new drugs and the other centred around off-patent older products was recently abandoned. CEO Ian Read acknowledged the potential benefits of divesting OTC in the group's 3Q announcement. Consumer healthcare is, he said, a valuable business that was growing well, “but like all our businesses, we look at them and we subject them to tests of are they worth more inside or outside of Pfizer?” Several rivals with an existing exposure to the sector, including GlaxoSmithKline and Reckitt Benckiser, have already expressed interest in adding additional assets, and Pfizer's unit could generate an offer of as much as $14bn if it were put on the market.
Adbrands Weekly Update 1st Sep 2016: Pfizer is still shopping. A few days after agreeing to acquire US oncology drugmaker Medivation, it snapped up AstraZeneca's international antibiotics portfolio for up to $1.6bn, to be paid over several years depending on performance. Drugs include Zinforo, Zavicefta and Merrem. Allergan markets the most important of these drugs in the US under the names Teflaro and Avycaz.
Adbrands Weekly Update 24th Aug 2016: Pfizer trumped rival Sanofi by clinching a deal to acquire US drug developer Medivation, makers of the blockbuster prostate cancer drug Xtandi (co-marketed by Japanese company Astellas). Medivation was put in play after Sanofi launched a hostile bid for the company in June after several friendly approaches were rebuffed. The biotech developer sought white knight offers from US compatriots Pfizer and Amgen. Pfizer's $14bn deal is almost double Medivation's market cap before Sanofi's original approach.
Adbrands Weekly Update 9th Jun 2016: Ads of the Week: "Before It Became A Medicine". Pharmaceutical groups get a rough ride in the media, and Pfizer arguably gets it worse than most, partly for its bully-boy takeover tactics. However it's easy to overlook just how much time and sheer effort (and cash) goes into coming up with a new blockbuster product that could save your life. Here's a fine corporate campaign from BBDO NY and CDM to remind us of the hard graft that transforms an idea into that little bottle of pills in your bathroom cabinet.
Adbrands Weekly Update 7th April 2016: Pfizer abandoned its proposed $150bn acquisition of Allergan after receiving a curve ball from President Obama and the Treasury Department. The key incentive for Pfizer was to take advantage of Allergan's tax residency in the Irish Republic to transfer its own liabilities out of the US, where rates are significantly higher. However this sort of tax inversion deal - which was itself used previously by what is now Allergan - has been widely derided by lawmakers over the past year. "After an inversion," said Treasury Secretary Jack Lew, "many of these companies continue to take advantage of the benefits of being based in the United States - including our rule of law, skilled workforce, infrastructure, and research, and development capabilities - all while shifting a greater tax burden to other businesses and American families." Indeed, President Obama this week called it "one of the most insidious tax loopholes out there". That was a day after the Treasury introduced unexpectedly aggressive new rules which effectively eliminate any advantages in the proposed Pfizer-Allergan deal, or similar such inversion arrangements. The new rules specifically target "serial inverters" such as Allergan, which has mounted numerous such cross-border deals to reach its current size, making them significantly less attractive to buyers as potential targets. The new rules disregard in certain circumstances assets acquired by a target company within the previous three years. As a result, Allergan would be valued for tax purposes at its 2013 market cap, more than a third below its current value. This would make it too small to become a vehicle for tax inversion by Pfizer. At the same time, certain advantages previously enjoyed by foreign-based companies if they lend money to their US subsidiaries were also blocked. This removes one of the main incentives for US companies to pursue inversions while still being based operationally in the States. However, it will also remove some tax benefits for other multinationals with extensive operations in the US, such as Nestle, Unilever or Diageo.
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Free for all users | see full profile for current activities: Cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhart arrived in America from Germany in the 1840s. Pfizer had studied chemistry back home, and in 1849 the two formed chemical firm Charles Pfizer & Company in New York. Erhart's training was in confectionery, and their first product was a new formula for the foul-tasting worm treatment santonin, flavoured with toffee to improve its palatability. Following the success of this initial venture, the business expanded rapidly, beginning the manufacture of tartaric acid and cream of tartar for use in the food and chemical industries in 1862.
By the end of the century, Pfizer's most important product was citric acid, used primarily for medicinal purposes, as well as for foods, soft drinks, cleaning fluids and industrial processes. Traditionally, this was processed from sour citrus fruits, imported at some expense from Italy. When supply of the raw material stopped as a result of World War I, Pfizer faced a serious problem. In 1917, the company recruited government food chemist Dr James Currie, who had discovered that citric acid was also created naturally during the fermentation of cheese. At Pfizer he developed a system for creating the acid from sugar. After several years of testing, the process (known as SUCIAC, or Sugar Under Conversion Into Acid Citric), was perfected. By 1929, Pfizer was able to generate its entire production run of citric acid from cheap molasses, using huge fermentation vats, and at a fraction of the original cost.
This breakthrough was to have far more significant results a decade later. At the same time that Currie was perfecting his SUCIAC process, Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming was discovering that a comparatively ordinary green mould produced a substance capable of killing many of the common bacteria that infect humans. Fleming did not have the resources to isolate the substance, which he named penicillin, and his research was effectively shelved for more than a decade. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 created an immediate and urgent need for anti-infection agents. The British government reopened the project, calling on the US for assistance in mass-producing the drug. In 1941, Pfizer was one of 20 companies which began the race to find a way of creating penicillin in the quantities required for what had now become a global conflict. In 1942 the company discovered that the deep-tank fermentation units used for citric acid production were also ideal for penicillin, and Pfizer turned over most of its production facility to the new wonder-drug. That same year the company went public. All 20 companies began production using the same process, but few others could match Pfizer's supply. The company claims that 90% of the penicillin used at the D-Day landings in 1944 was manufactured by Pfizer, as well as half of the entire supply used for the remaining two years of the war.
Until this point, Pfizer had been primarily a manufacturing facility, mass-producing substances developed by other companies under contract and selling them. After the war, Pfizer chairman John Smith drew up the blueprint for the transformation of the company into a pharmaceutical business in its own right, ordering his successor, John McKeen, to search for drugs which Pfizer would own as well as manufacture. The first product to be developed exclusively by Pfizer scientists was named Terramycin, a powerful antibiotic extracted from soil. In 1950, the company formed a large and aggressive salesforce to market this new drug under the Pfizer name not just in the US but globally. This campaign also effectively marked the beginning of medical advertising in the US. Pfizer hired long-established agency William Douglas McAdams to advertise the product commercially, and they introduced many of the strategies now taken for granted, such as direct mail and sampling units, and above all print ads in medical journals. In 1952, McAdams paid to insert an entire issue of Pfizer's house magazine Spectrum into the Journal of the American Medical Association, an unprecedented move. The same aggressive approach was adopted outside the US, with the result that within seven years, Pfizer's international division had grown sales from virtually nothing to over $60m annually.
In 1952 the company opened an agricultural division, devoted to animal health research. A year later Pfizer acquired Roerig & Company, makers of nutritional supplements, and formed a partnership with Japanese company Taito in 1955 (they took control of the joint venture forty years later). In 1963, consumer skincare and medicine business Desitin joined the portfolio, along with Coty, one of the world's oldest perfume companies, and a number of medical device manufacturers. Expansion of the company's hard-nosed sales force and new manufacturing and research facilities worldwide had pushed sales over $200m by 1966.
The company's different research departments unveiled a series of new products over the coming years. For example, in 1954, Tetracyn was Pfizer's first entirely synthetic antibiotic. However few products in this increasingly global company had the international impact of Terramycin. In 1971, all the group's chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural research facilities were combined as the Central Research Division to coordinate on the development of "blockbuster" substances. Feldene, launched in 1982, became the world's largest-selling prescription anti-inflammatory medication, and went on to be the first Pfizer product to achieve sales of $1bn. Cardiovascular treatment Norvasc was introduced in 1989.
In the 1990s, Pfizer refocused on its pharmaceutical business, then ranking around #14 worldwide. In 1992 the company sold off Coty - by then North America's leading mass-market fragrance company - to the Benckiser family, as well as heart-valve maker Shiley. The rest of the group's various medical products businesses followed over the course of the decade. In 1995 the group acquired SmithKline Beecham's animal health division, merging it with its own to create the world's leading animal health company. The same year, the group bought the Bain de Soleil skincare brand from Procter & Gamble (but sold it again in 1999).
At the same time, as most drugmakers worldwide began cutting their sales forces and marketing budgets, Pfizer took the opposite approach, beefing up its marketing departments and sales network. As a result, Pfizer's next pharmaceutical launch received the full benefit of the company's uniquely aggressive marketing skills. Introduced in 1998, Viagra achieved an unprecedented level of success, grabbing headlines around the world and breaking records at the time as the world's fastest-selling drug. Equally important was the marketing alliance formed a year earlier with smaller rival Warner-Lambert. The latter had developed a ground-breaking cholesterol lowering drug, marketed under the name Lipitor. Aware of the drug's huge potential, but lacking a global sales force to do it justice, Warner agreed a marketing alliance with Pfizer's renowned sales division. Lipitor was another massive success, the first pharmaceutical product to achieve sales of $1bn in its first year on the market. The following year sales more than doubled to $2.1bn.
In 1999 Warner-Lambert surprised the industry as a whole, but Pfizer in particular, with the announcement that it had agreed to merge with US rival American Home Products (now Wyeth) to create the world's biggest drug company, to be called American Warner. [See Warner-Lambert profile for more]. Concerned about the inevitable damage to the Lipitor partnership, and keen to build its own business, Pfizer launched an unprecedented hostile bid for Warner. Hostile takeovers are very rare indeed in the pharmaceutical world, where it is essential to retain the goodwill of the core asset, the research scientists. Pfizer, however, argued it was the better partner, backing that claim with a handsome premium to Warner shareholders, as well as the promise of substantially increased R&D budgets. Despite Warner's attempts to escape a hostile takeover, Pfizer finally clinched the deal in February 2000, paying $90bn in stock. Pfizer inherited several non-core businesses in the takeover of Warner-Lambert, but was barred from making any disposals for two years following completion of that deal. The group began the process of soliciting bids for three business units in 2002. The biggest of these was gum and mints manufacturer Adams, sold to Cadbury Schweppes at the end of 2002 for $4.2bn. Tetra, the world's leading specialist in fishkeeping and reptile-care products, was also sold at the end of 2002, and shaving products division Schick-Wilkinson Sword was sold to battery manufacturer Energizer for $930m.
In 2003, Pfizer was back on the acquisition trail again in order to consolidate its hold on another blockbuster drug. Celebrex had been discovered by Searle, a division of Pharmacia Corporation. Like Lipitor, it was launched through a marketing partnership with Pfizer, and set a new record in 1999 for the most successful pharmaceutical product launch in the US, overtaking Viagra. In 2003, Pfizer negotiated a $60bn takeover of Pharmacia to seize full control of the drug and its follow-up Bextra. Both products were badly dented however by the controversy over COX-2 inhibitors that surfaced towards the end of 2004.
There were a number of additional deals over the period. The group acquired biotechnology groups Eyetech (in 2002 for $745m) and Esperion Therapeutics (in 2003 for $1.3bn). In 2004 the group paid $125m for Meridica, a British company which had developed a new form of asthma inhaler. Pfizer also sold off several products to comply with regulators' conditions for the Pharmacia merger. Oral contraceptives Estrostep and Loestrin and the hormone replacement therapy, FemHRT were transferred to Irish pharma business Galen for $484m in 2003, and an experimental urinary incontinence drug was sold to Swiss drugmaker Novartis for $225m.
However the combined effects of fierce generic competition, looming patent expirations, a slowing development pipeline and far tighter regulatory curbs began to bite from 2005 onwards. In 2006 the group took the decision to divest its large but comparatively low margin consumer healthcare division, and launched a major restructuring programme. During 2007 alone, Pfizer reduced headcount by more than 11,000 people, and exited six manufacturing sites and two R&D sites. See full profile for current activities
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