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Procter & Gamble is a giant in household products, for many years the world's biggest advertiser, and the company which defined many of the marketing strategies which we now take for granted. It was the first company to advertise nationally direct to US consumers (in 1880) and it literally created the concept of "soap opera" by sponsoring radio and television dramas targeting women. Other inventions included the first Fluoride-based toothpaste (Crest), the revolutionary synthetic detergent Tide, and the first mass-marketed disposable diaper (Pampers). Yet P&G found life in the last few years of the 20th century more difficult than it may have expected, with earnings below expectations and a series of management shake-ups as a result of under-performance. New CEO AG Lafley got the group back on track during 2002 with the purchases of Clairol and Wella and a renewed focus on core products. Following dynamic performance in 2003 and 2004, P&G demonstrated the strength of its recovery a year later with the acquisition of legendary personal care rival Gillette. The next few years delivered strong growth, and a push into prestige beauty. However Lafley's retirement in 2009 prefaced another slowdown in performance from which the group has yet to fully emerge. In 2013, in a surprise development, the board brought Lafley out of retirement in the hope that he could persuade lightning to strike twice. Two years later, that hadn't happened, and Lafley passed over control to rising star David Taylor, who oversaw the sale of a large collection of high-end beauty products (including several of Lafley's acquisitions) to Coty.
Selected Procter & Gamble advertising
See separate profiles for brand advertising
|P&G Beauty||P&G Health & Grooming|
|P&G Baby, Feminine & Family Care||P&G Grooming|
|P&G Fabric & Home Care|
Who handles Procter & Gamble advertising? Click here for a listing of P&G advertising account assignments from Adbrands.net. Including unmeasured media, P&G declared advertising expenditure for fiscal 2016 of $7.24bn. In the US, Kantar (in Advertising Age) reported measured media expenditure in calendar 2015 of $2.22bn, out of an estimated total of $4.26bn. Biggest spending brands were Crest (measured spend $176m), Olay ($146m), Cover Girl ($121m), DayQuil/NyQuil ($113m), Pampers ($110m), Swiffer ($109m), Febreze ($104m), Tide ($100m) and Gillette ($97m).
Procter & Gamble
1 Procter & Gamble Plaza
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Tel: +1 513 983 1100
Adbrands Weekly Update 5th Jun 2017: Procter & Gamble completed the latest round in its global media review. Starcom retained all existing media responsibilities in the UK and also added other assignments previously managed by Mediacom, including press media buying. In German-speaking markets, incumbent Mediacom retained its position, but only as a result of agreeing to establish a dedicated joint venture with independently owned Pilot Media, which had previously handled some digital duties. In Nordic markets, however, Mediacom lost its brief to Carat.
Adbrands Weekly Update 13th Apr 2017: Unilever and P&G, two of the world's biggest advertisers, have vowed to cut back on marketing expenditure, and especially on the number of companies they work with. In a conference call with investors, Unilever CFO Graeme Pitkethly said the company discovered that it currently works with around 3,000 different agencies around the world. It aims to cut that number by half, and produce 30% fewer ads than at present. That announcement prompted a 4% slump in the share price of WPP, Unilever's biggest marketing services supplier. P&G is already executing a similar strategy. Brand building chief Marc Pritchard told the 4A's Transformation conference "We fed the complexity beast by hiring thousands of agencies globally", and has already cut this roster by half. Now he too plans to streamline the number of ad messages being communicated. “We bombard consumers with thousands of ads a day. We're awfully busy, but all of this activity is not breaking through the clutter. It's just creating more noise.... We need to stop chasing our tails and have the courage to do less. Doing fewer and better ideas is indeed an act of bravery."
Adbrands Weekly Update 2nd Feb 2017: Procter & Gamble warned its agency partners that it plans to review all existing contracts during 2017 in order to ensure full transparency in digital media, including standardized viewability measures, third-party verification and more fraud protection. In the past, top marketer Marc Pritchard told an IAB conference, "We accepted multiple viewability metrics, publishers reporting with no verification, outdated agency contracts and fraud threats with the somewhat delusional thought that digital is different and that we were getting ahead of the digital curve. We’ve come to our senses and realised there is no sustainable advantage in a complicated, non-transparent, inefficient and fraudulent media supply chain... The days of giving digital a pass are over. It's time to grow up. It's time for action." Within days of Marc Pritchard's announcement, P&G Northern Europe confirmed a review of media in the UK, Ireland and Scandinavian markets. Most of the business is held by Starcom, with Mediacom handling press and some other duties.
Adbrands Weekly Update 26th Jan 2017: Procter & Gamble enjoyed a big uplift from the sale of its premium beauty portfolio, which closed last quarter, marking the mid-point in the packaged goods giant's fiscal year to June. Net earnings for the group's Q2 soared by almost 150% as a result of the one-off gain, though comparable revenues were flat. Stripping out the exceptional gain, performance remained mixed. Clearly no magic bullet just yet. Comparable volumes from each of P&G's divisions were up by between 2% and 4%, with organic sales up 2% across the board. However, reported revenues were undercut by foreign exchange and pricing pressures. Net earnings from continuing operations slipped by 12%, demonstrating that sale has not eliminated the challenges still facing the group.
Adbrands Weekly Update 18th Aug 2016: P&G is continuing to tweak international media requirements. It concluded a review in China, retaining Starcom as lead agency for buying but expanding the role of planning partner Mediacom to cover more brands, as well as branded entertainment, digital and selected ecommerce projects. P&G also confirmed this week that it will indeed review media in the UK, as had been rumoured for a couple of weeks. Starcom currently handles broadcast and most other media, while Mediacom has print and some planning duties.
Adbrands Weekly Update 11th Aug 2016: Disposals and the effect of currencies have effectively wiped out a decade's worth of topline growth for Procter & Gamble, with revenues for the year to June 2016 tumbling to $65.30bn, the lowest level since 2005 when the group acquired Gillette. That's down by almost $20bn over the past three years from the group's reported peak of $84.2bn in ye 2013. The impending disposal of much of the beauty portfolio to Coty reduced reported revenues from that unit alone in the most recent year by more than $6.5bn to $11.5bn, from over $20bn in 2012. On a comparable basis, group revenues from continuing operations fell only 8% year-on-year, and the group claimed organic growth of 1% excluding the effect of currencies and other exceptional items. However the changes within the portfolio have restored fabric & homecare to its traditional role as the group's biggest business by both revenues ($20.7bn) and profits ($2.8bn). The combined baby, feminine & family care division wasn't far behind at $18.5bn and $2.7bn respectively. The absence of last year's round of impairments and losses from discontinued operations gave a considerable boost to profitability, with net income surging by 48% to $10.51bn.
Brands & Activities
Procter & Gamble defined the nature of packaged goods brand marketing in the second half of the century, and despite an alarming wobble during the crossover from the 20th to the 21st centuries, it was by 2004 once again setting the pace for other marketers to match. Between 2003 and 2010, CEO AG Lafley consistently delivered strong growth and accumulated an unbeatable line up of products, virtually all of which occupied the #1 or #2 position in their respective markets. No other company could (or can) boast as dynamic a line-up of brands, including 25 worth more than $1bn a year in sales. But with sales topping $80bn, and performance slowing in several areas, a serious question began to emerge regarding future development. It became hard to see just where P&G could go next before the sheer size of the company pushed it towards demerger. That dilemma coincided with a dramatic slowdown in performance under a new management team, leading to a complete overhaul of P&G's portfolio during 2015 and 2016.
Procter & Gamble is a giant in packaged consumer goods, the worldwide #1 in baby care, fabric care, feminine care and haircare, and a major force in virtually every other sector in which it operates. At its peak the company controlled around 300 brands in total, marketed across over 160 countries, but the portfolio is led by a collection of what were, in 2013, 25 billion-dollar brands. The biggest of these were: Pampers (gross sales of around $11.25bn in 2013, according to Euromonitor/Sanford Bernstein estimates), Tide (around $5bn), Ariel ($4bn), Pantene ($3.8bn) and Olay ($3.4bn). They are in turn supported by Always, Bounty, Charmin, Iams, Downy and Crest. Wella, Actonel and Head & Shoulders joined the Billion Dollar club in 2004; Dawn topped $1bn in sales in 2005. Gillette Mach 3 razors, Gillette Series grooming products, Duracell, Braun and Oral-B were added to top table in 2006. Gain was a new member in 2007, followed by Gillette Fusion during 2008, Ace in 2010 and Febreze in 2011. More recent additions to the billion-dollar-club are SK-II skincare and Vicks, both of which surpassed that level for the first time in 2012. In 2014, another 14 brands had sales between $500m and $1bn per annum, including Cover Girl, Herbal Essences, Swiffer and Tampax.
However that collection of trophies has been whittled down over the past couple of years by the disposal of non-core businesses. Iams and Duracell were divested in 2014 and 2015. The biggest change came with the decision to divest a large chunk of the beauty portfolio, culminating in the transfer of Wella, Cover Girl and others to Coty. By the end of 2016, the portfolio had been whittled down to around 65 brands in total.
Several other brands had already been sold by then. In the second half of the 20th century, P&G assembled a sizeable portfolio of food products, but this business was quickly overshadowed by more attractive market segments such as beauty or family care. The Snacks & Coffee division gained a largely unexpected new lease of life in the 1990s from the sudden popularity of Sunny Delight and Pringles, yet it remained an uncomfortable fit with P&G's other interests. Plans were announced in 2001 to spin these brands off into a joint venture with Coca-Cola, but these foundered as a result of objections from shareholders. That same year, Jif peanut butter and Crisco cooking oils were spun off into JM Smucker. After several months looking for a buyer, Sunny Delight and German juice brand Punica were sold to venture capital firm JW Childs in 2004. Folgers coffee, too, was transferred to Smucker during 2008, leaving Pringles as P&G's last remaining food product. A plan to transfer that business to snack company Diamond Foods collapsed in 2011, and the brand was eventually sold to Kellogg's. Petfoods division Iams was sold in two parts in 2014 and 2015 to Mars and Spectrum Brands.
Another major divestment was the Duracell battery business, which was transferred to Berkshire Hathaway in 2015. Warren Buffett agreed to take over the standalone business from P&G for a net value of around $2.9bn. The deal was structured as a slightly unconventional but highly tax-efficient asset swap. Berkshire surrendered its existing shareholding in P&G, then worth $4.7bn, back to the company, which in return injected $1.8bn in cash into the Duracell Company as a parting dowry. As a result, both companies avoid a sizeable tax penalty that would have been generated by a straight sale of assets.
Procter & Gamble's corporate structure has undergone a series of changes since the late 1990s. In 1998, the group abandoned its arrangement as a collection of separate geographic businesses in favour of global divisions specialising in specific sectors. This greatly accelerated the worldwide roll-out of key products with what was ultimately considerable financial gain. Since then, these divisions have been steadily consolidated, from seven to five to four to three global business units (GBUs) by July 2007, and then to just two in February 2011, when P&G Health & Well Being was split and absorbed into its two partner groups, P&G Beauty & Grooming and P&G Household Care. In another group reshuffle in June 2013, P&G was reordered once more into four divisions: Beauty; Fabric & Home Care; Health & Grooming; and Baby, Feminine & Family Care. A separate GBU provides worldwide marketing, market development and other corporate functions.
Long renowned for its marketing prowess, P&G also has a cast-iron reputation for exceptional strength in research and development, not just of new products, but also component ingredients and packaging design. The group still comes up with more new ideas than even it can develop commercially. As a result, since 2000, it has greatly increased its willingness to form mutually beneficial "innovation partnerships" with other companies. In one such arrangement P&G licenses technology it developed for plastic wrappings to smaller company Clorox for use in products sold under the latter's Glad brand. In 2008 it agreed to lend a wide range of other packaging technologies, including non-splatter nozzles for plastic bottles, to food company ConAgra.
Recently, the group has established a major presence in sports sponsorship. It signed up as an official sponsor of the US national team in the 2010 Winter Olympics, promoting several individual products, mostly family-oriented brands, in a wide-ranging and imaginative campaign. The apparent success of that campaign led to the group signing up in summer 2010 as top-line sponsor of the main Summer games. Commencing with the 2012 London Olympics, that ten-year deal covers three summer and two winter Olympics. In addition, P&G became the first corporate sponsor with rights to promote multiple different brands under its IOC partnership agreement. Its 2012 "Thank You Mom" campaign, celebrating the support given to athletes by their mothers, was widely regarded as one of the year's standout campaigns, and won a Creative Emmy as the Best TV Commercial of the Year.
Despite emerging challenges and several divestments, P&G's total revenues continued to rise steadily in the 2010s, peaking at $84.17bn for the year to June 2013, up just 1% on the previous year. However net income came under greater pressure as a result of the increase in commodity costs, as well as higher marketing spend. After hitting highs of $13.4bn in 2009 (including a large gain from Folgers), net profits slid back in each of the two following years, shedding 9% in 2012 to $10.76bn. That figure included a $1.58bn impairment charge against professional haircare operations. For the year to 2013, there was a 5% recovery to $11.31bn.
A series of further disposals reduced revenues for the year to June 2014 to $83.06bn, though on a comparable basis, sales from continuing operations were up marginally by 0.6%. Organic sales excluding exchange rates were up 3%. Net income recovered to $11.64bn.
Further disposals, as well as the impact of exchange rates, cut into revenues for the year to June 2015. Reported topline slipped back below $80bn, to $76.28bn, while net income slumped 40% to $7.04bn, the lowest level since 2006. Performance was undercut by numerous factors including higher costs, a $2bn charge against its Venezuelan subsidiary, another $2bn on impairments and a $1.8bn loss from discontinued operations. At constant rates, organic revenues edged up 1%.
Disposals and currencies made a big dent in revenues for the year to June 2016, with topline tumbling to $65.30bn. That was down 8% year-on-year on a comparable continuing basis, but represented the lowest reported revenues for P&G since 2005, when the group acquired Gillette. Excluding divestments and currencies, the group claimed an overall organic sales increase of 1%, with positive growth in all reporting segments. Without the impact of impairments and losses on discontinued operations which affected the previous year, net income powered up by 48% to $10.51bn.
The group now generates 41% of revenues from the US (and another 3% from Canada and Puerto Rico combined). Its next biggest single country is China at 8%. Europe accounted for 23%, other Asia Pacific markets for 9%, Latin America and the India/Middle East/Africa group for 8% apiece. Walmart is the group's biggest global customer, accounting for 15% of revenues, or $9.8bn in ye 2016.
Following his appointment as CEO in 2000, Alan ("AG") Lafley was responsible for orchestrating a spectacular rejuvenation of P&G after several years of stagnation. Over the next nine years he effectively doubled the group's revenues as a result of a series of bold and generally successful acquisitions, and established a strong presence at the higher end of the beauty and personal care market. He stepped down as CEO in July 2009 and was replaced by group chief operating officer Bob McDonald. Lafley passed over the role of chairman to McDonald as well from January 2010. Clayt Daley retired as CFO at the end of 2008 and was replaced by Jon Moeller. Yet Bob McDonald's reign was marked by a sharp decline in performance as growth stalled and costs soared. Under increasing pressure from investors, the board announced McDonald's resignation in July 2013, and the reinstatement of the 66-year-old AG Lafley. Since Lafley was already past retirement age, one of his key tasks over the next few years was to find a suitable successor to take over the baton.
The return of Lafley highlighted one of the other serious problems which had emerged under McDonald's command: the departure of several other potential leaders from P&G's senior ranks. McDonald's main rival for the top job, Susan Arnold, departed the group in 2009 as soon as it became clear that she would not be named CEO. In 2011, Dimitri Panayotopoulos was appointed as group vice chairman, global business units, with reporting responsibility for all the group's brand businesses, effectively introducing a new layer between previous divisional bosses and the CEO role. That probably contributed to the departure of several other managers. Ed Shirley, previously head of global beauty & grooming, resigned to become CEO of Bacardi; "Chip" Bergh quit to become CEO of Levi Strauss; Christopher de la Puente took the top job at LVMH's Sephora division.
As a means of evaluating a new generation of CEO candidates, newly returned Lafley Lafley announced a reshuffle of the group's global business units in June 2013, elevating four executives to a position as potential candidates to succeed him as CEO. These were Martin Riant (group president, global baby, feminine & family care), Deb Henretta (group president, global beauty), David Taylor (group president, global health & grooming) and Giovanni Ciserani (group president global fabric & home care). In Jan 2015, with beauty still under-performing, Taylor was handed additional responsibility for that division as well as grooming & health, a move which appeared to put him in pole position to succeed Lafley. Deb Henretta moved at the same time to a newly created position as group president, ecommerce, before quietly leaving the group. Patrice Louvet moved up to president, global beauty, reporting to Taylor.
It was David Taylor who finally secured the elevation to the top job. In July 2015 the group confirmed that he would become CEO of Procter & Gamble from November 1st, with Lafley moving up to the position of executive chairman. In July 2016, Taylor became chairman as well, allowing to Lafley to retire for the second time from P&G. Several of Taylor's rivals for the CEO role also departed. As of early 2017, the main divisional leaders are Giovanni Ciserani (group president, fabric & homecare and global baby & feminine care), Mary Lynn Ferguson-McHugh (group president, family care and global brand creation & innovation) and Charles Pierce (group president, global grooming). P&G Beauty president Patrice Louvet resigned in May 2017 to become CEO of Ralph Lauren, and was replaced by Alexandra Keith, previously president, global skin & personal care. At the next level down are Thomas Finn (president, global personal health care), Steven Bishop (president, global health care), Fama Francisco (president, global feminine care), Shailesh Jejurikar (president, global fabric care) and George Tsourapas (president, global home care & P&G Professional).
Werner Geissler retired as group vice chairman, and head of global operations at the end of 2014, along with several other executives, prompting multiple new appointments. As a result, the current senior team includes Carolyn Tastad (group president, North America selling & market operations), Gary Coombe (president, Europe selling & market operations), Juan Fernando Posada (president, Latin America selling & market operations), Magesvaran Suranjan (president, Asia Pacific selling & market operations), Matthew Price (president, Greater China selling & market operations) and Mohamed Samir (president, India, Middle East & Africa selling & market operations). Other senior central officers include Jeff Schomberger (global sales officer), Julio Nemeth (president, global business services), Kathleen Fish (chief technology officer) and Yannis Skoufalos (global product supply officer). Phil Duncan is global design officer, overseeing product design and packaging.
The marketing team was headed for several years by James Stengel until his retirement at the end of October 2008. He was replaced by Marc Pritchard, now chief brand officer. That change led to further changes in the company's marketing line-up. Other senior officers in the marketing team now include Kirti Singh (VP, global consumer & market knowledge), Kristine Decker (director, North America media & brand operations), Tricia Jenkins (associate director, media operations & innovation), Ilonka Laviz (marketing director, digital brand-building strategy & global strategy). Gerry D'Angelo joined in early 2017 (from Mondelez) as global media director.
|Procter & Gamble Brazil||Procter & Gamble Germany|
|Procter & Gamble India||Procter & Gamble Japan|
|Procter & Gamble France||Procter & Gamble Western Europe|
|Procter & Gamble UK||Procter & Gamble Hungary|
|Procter & Gamble Balkans||Procter & Gamble Israel|
|Procter & Gamble Argentina||Procter & Gamble Korea|
|Procter & Gamble China||Procter & Gamble Turkey|
|Procter & Gamble Czech Republic||Procter & Gamble Russia|
|Procter & Gamble Hong Kong||Procter & Gamble Venezuela|
In the early years of the 19th century, William Procter and James Gamble were among the thousands of immigrants attracted by the promise of a better life in the new United States. An Englishman and an Irishman respectively, they were each separately on their way across the US to the frontier land of the West, but broke their journey in Cincinnati, then being transformed into one of the country's biggest meat-packing centres under the nickname "Porkopolis". By sheer chance, Procter and Gamble fell in love with and married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Ann Norris. Their father-in-law persuaded them not just to settle in the fast-expanding city but also to combine their skills as a candlemaker and soapmaker and set up in business together. In 1837, in the midst of a bitter recession, the partnership of Procter & Gamble was formed. The fledgling company survived not just the recession but also the Civil War which followed. In fact, that war brought considerable benefits as lucrative government contracts for soap and candles pushed sales through the $1m barrier.
By the late 1870s the business was being managed by the founders' sons. In 1879, James Norris Gamble developed an inexpensive hard white soap of a similar quality to imported castile toilet soap, but made from vegetable oil rather than exorbitantly expensive olive oil. Better still, it was pure enough, and cheap enough, to be used for laundry and other general cleaning purposes as well as for personal washing. This was a significant issue at a time when most general purpose soap was made from animal fats. (Bluntly highlighting its benefits, an early ad for Procter & Gamble's soap asked "Are you certain that the plate you eat and the cup you drink from have not been washed with soap made from diseased cattle?"). Gamble's cousin Harley Procter, who supervised the marketing of the company's products, named the new soap Ivory. A national advertising campaign was launched during the following decade, highlighting not just the soap's purity ("99 44/100% pure"), but also the fact that it floated on water, thus avoiding the risk of being lost in the bath or laundry tub. The latter attribute, an entirely accidental by-product of the way the soap was made, turned out to be its most memorable feature as far as the public was concerned. Other soap manufacturers soon replicated the purity of Ivory, but no other competitor could compete with this additional gimmick. By the 1890s, Ivory was being advertised simply as: "Ivory Soap. It Floats."
The success of Ivory encouraged the partners to establish their own research laboratory in 1890, the first such dedicated facility in the United States. A stream of innovative new products followed. By experimenting with other chemical processes involving vegetable and cottonseed oil, the company developed a way of "hydrogenating" liquid oils to produce a solid cake. This led to the creation of Procter & Gamble's first food product, a shortening for baking made entirely from vegetable oil. Unlike lard this new product, launched in 1912 as Crisco, didn't go rancid, didn't taste of meat, and was far cheaper than butter for making cakes. However it was also a complete change of pace for a soap and candle company, so for the first time, Procter & Gamble looked beyond its inhouse resources, appointing the advertising agency J Walter Thompson to come up with ways of selling it to the public. Thompson's Stanley Resor and Helen Lansdowne came up with what was then the biggest advertising and sampling campaign ever attempted in the United States, as well as a series of ads which proclaimed Crisco as "An absolutely new product. A scientific discovery which will affect every kitchen in America." It was to be P&G's first and last involvement with JWT, which subsequently became one of the main agencies for arch-rival Lever (later Unilever).
The next milestone in Procter & Gamble's development was the creation of its first perfumed beauty soap, designed to compete with established brands Lux (from Lever Brothers) and Cashmere Bouquet (from Palmolive). At least partly emulating a similar move the year before by Lever Brothers, P&G mounted a huge research project to determine the correct approach for this new launch. The company sent out hundreds of researchers to conduct door-to-door interviews with literally thousands of housewives all over America. These women were asked to give their views on everything from the shape of the bar and its perfume to the design of the wrapper and even its name. First choice for the brand was Cameo, but when this was found to be already trademarked, the company selected instead Camay, launched in 1926. This new product also gave the company its first experience of brand management, since Camay had to be clearly differentiated from P&G's existing Ivory, still its flagship product.
In 1930, P&G took its first steps outside North America, with the purchase of British manufacturer Thomas Hedley & Sons, makers of Fairy Soap. Five years later, a factory was established in the Philippines. The company also continued to experiment with new chemical processes, refining its soap ingredients to produce first flakes and then granules, which dissolved much faster in water.
During the 1920s and 1930s, P&G was one of the United States' most adventurous marketers. That process had begun with the huge research effort put behind the launch of Camay, but it was quickly applied to other products as well. Many of the women interviewed for Camay had said they listened to the radio while doing the housework, but wanted to be entertained not instructed. This inspired the idea of creating a program that would run at a time when housewives were listening and would create a happy association between entertainment and P&G's products. The company tested the water in 1933 with "Ma Perkins", a radio serial about a widow forced to juggle financial and family problems, which also promoted the company's Oxydol laundry detergent. This proved so popular with listeners that P&G quickly commissioned a string of other radio shows for its products (though none came close to matching the popularity of "Oxydol's Own Ma Perkins", which ran for 27 years).
These programs quickly became known as "soap operas" because of their combination of high emotional drama with product endorsements for detergent. By 1939, P&G's radio department was producing no less than 21 separate radio shows every week. Also that year, just five months after the introduction of television, P&G aired its first TV commercial (for Ivory soap) during the first televised major league baseball game. (The company remained faithful to soap opera, sponsoring daytime US TV dramas, including the longest-running series of all, As The World Turns, right up to the beginning of the 21st century. ATWT finally ended in September 2010). Neil McElroy, the marketing manager responsible for P&G's innovations in the 1930s rose to president of the company, before becoming US Secretary of Defense from 1957 to 1960. He returned to P&G as executive chairman until his death in 1972.
By 1945, P&G's sales had reached almost $350m. The first year of peace after World War II marked an important watershed for the company. Although it had achieved some success with the launch of Dreft a decade earlier, that product had significant disadvantages as well. It lathered in hard water, but it wasn't especially effective at removing ground-in dirt from fabrics. However, P&G's scientists continued to refine the chemical processes involved until they finally came up with a new formulation that was capable of handling all kinds of dirt. In 1946, P&G launched Tide, the so-called "washing miracle". Cheaper than rival products, but also far more effective at removing dirt, Tide took the US by storm, stealing market-leadership from then-dominant Unilever within four years. This triumph for P&G marked a new phase in what now became a furious rivalry with the Anglo-Dutch combine.
In 1955 Crest was introduced. It was another breakthrough, the first toothpaste with fluoride clinically proven to fight cavities. In an unprecedented marketing coup, P&G eventually won an endorsement from the American Dental Association, and this seal of approval quickly gave the product leadership of the sector. In 1957, the company acquired bleach manufacturer The Clorox Company. However that purchase was subsequently over-ruled by regulators and Clorox was spun out again in 1969. Also in 1957, P&G bought toilet tissue maker Charmin Paper Mills, and this division was responsible for the invention of the first disposable mass-produced diaper, Pampers, in 1963.
The company also strengthened its existing businesses, expanding into new food and beverage categories, most notably with the acquisition of Folgers coffee in 1963, and building on its strong laundry reputation with Downy, its first fabric softener. There was also a growing focus on international businesses. Convinced that success in new geographic markets required on-the-ground operations, P&G began building start-up businesses, first in Mexico, then in Europe and Japan. By 1980, P&G was doing business in 23 countries around the world with sales of nearly $11 billion.
The 1980s and 1990s saw further diversification as P&G moved aggressively into healthcare and cosmetic products through the acquisition of Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals (Pepto-Bismol, Chloraseptic and Dantrium) in 1982; GD Searle (makers of Metamucil) and Richardson-Vicks (Vicks, Pantene shampoo and Olay) in 1985; Noxell (Cover Girl, Noxsema and Clarion), Max Factor, Shulton (Old Spice) and Ellen Betrix in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Richardson-Vicks and Max Factor, in particular, dramatically expanded P&G's international presence. The $1.8bn acquisition of Tambrands, makers of Tampax, in 1997 made P&G the world #1 in feminine protection.
One key to the group's success in the early 1990s was a constant process of rationalisation, stripping costs and unnecessary bureaucracy to improve efficiency, and selling off underperforming product lines. Between 1990 and 1995, P&G's president Ed Arzt presided over wide-ranging cost-cutting programmes which greatly enhanced the company's efficiency and profitability, but also resulted in poor staff morale, earning Arzt the nickname of "the Prince of Darkness". The title was also a reference to a long-standing but wholly fictitious allegation that P&G funded the Church of Satan, and that this "fact" was reflected in their moon-and-stars logo. This story first began circulating in 1980, and in 1996 P&G sued rival manufacturer Amway for propagating the absurd myth which continues to circulate even now (see Urban Legends for more). The two companies launched a series of suits and counter-suits. In 2003, a federal court finally begged the two sides to stop suing each other, and in 2007, four former employees of Amway were ordered to pay P&G $10m in damages.
Arzt's successor from 1995, John Pepper, presided over a period of consolidation and internal reconciliation mid-decade, but sales stayed flat. The appointment in 1999 of new president Durk Jager, a former Arzt protege, was widely interpreted to signal a shift back towards aggressive expansion. P&G issued a promise to double sales to $70bn by 2006, relying on growth within the core businesses, and expansion into Eastern Europe, China and South America. In order to achieve this, the company announced an ambitious global restructuring of its business to streamline the operation further. P&G moved from its previous structure of four regional divisions each handling all product lines, into seven worldwide divisions each specialising in one product segment. Shortly afterwards the company announced that it would shed 15,000 jobs - or almost 14% of workforce - in order to make savings of $900m annually.
Yet for the next four years, P&G was plagued by flat sales and a lack of dynamic growth. Acknowledging that it had not launched an important new brand since Always in 1984, P&G promised to streamline its product development operation as well to introduce brands worldwide more quickly. Yet none of the launches which followed caused much of a stir with consumers. Dryel was a home cleaning aid for dry-clean-only clothing; Swiffer, an innovative, dust-attracting cleaning cloth. Both were rolled out worldwide, but Dryel was later dropped in Europe after disappointing sales, and subsequently sold. P&G's best-selling US deodorant Secret launched into Europe the same year but was later pulled from the market in several territories when it failed to capture significant market share. Other underwhelming innovations included Impress plastic wrap, Fit Fruit & Vegetable Wash and ThermaCare disposable heat wraps.
Meanwhile the company continued to bolster its portfolio through acquisition. In 1999, P&G announced a move into the petfood market with the $2.3bn purchase of The Iams Company. In the same month, the group paid $265m for PUR drinking water filtration systems. The group also strengthened existing product lines, acquiring various regional businesses including Taiwanese manufacturer Long Chen Paper, maker of Delight and Tender facial and bathroom tissue. The company was also briefly drawn into discussions about a possible three-way merger with drug companies Warner-Lambert and American Home Products (now Wyeth).
In a bid to improve profitability, the group began a wholesale restructuring of its brand portfolio, offloading products with limited international potential. These included Hawaiian Punch fruit drink (to Cadbury Schweppes), Attends adult incontinence products, Oxydol laundry detergent, Chloraseptic throat spray, Prell shampoo, Comet kitchen cleaner, skin care brand Clearasil (to Boots), Spic'n'Span, Cinch, Frymax and Whirl oils, and European skincare brands Biactol and Topexan. In a further bid to boost efficiency, P&G waved its marketing clout and told its agencies it would no longer pay commission. Instead, the company moved towards a incentive system based on global sales for specific brands, instead of a percentage of spend. Yet by early 2000, it had become apparent that none of these policies was achieving the required goal of kickstarting growth. In March the group's shares crashed by 30% when the company issued a shock profits warning. A few months later P&G was forced to admit that it had seriously misjudged its strategy, issuing another profits warning, and announcing the resignation of Durk Jager after only 18 months. John Pepper came out of retirement to take back the role of chairman, while AG (Alan) Lafley, president of the beauty care division, was promoted to CEO.
It took Lafley some time to find his feet. In 2001, the group made the startling announcement that it was spinning off its Sunny Delight and Pringles brands into a new stand-alone joint venture with Coca-Cola. Yet the Coke deal was later abandoned in the face of opposition from Coca-Cola investors who felt they were getting poor value. Another embarrassment was the failure of a high-profile launch of a new range of cosmetics under the Olay brand. Despite these setbacks, P&G announced its biggest ever acquisition in May 2001. After several months of negotiation, the company agreed to buy the Clairol haircare business from Bristol Myers-Squibb, outbidding Japanese rival Kao Corporation with a whopping $4.95bn in cash. Clairol's weak subsequent performance led to accusations that P&G had overpaid. Mid-year the group was yet again embarrassed when it was forced to admit that executives in its haircare division had employed a corporate intelligence agency to spy on Unilever, even searching the rival company's litter bins looking for discarded documents. P&G reported its first loss for 12 years in the final quarter of fiscal 2001. Shortly afterwards the group announced another round of brand sales: Jif peanut butter and Crisco cooking oils, facial cleanser Sea Breeze, Ammens talcum powder, Vitapointe hair creme and Condition 3-in-1 styling aids. In addition, the company's Impress food wrap business was transferred into a new entity controlled by Clorox.
If P&G did little more than tread water in 2001, it finally began to rediscover its way forward the following year. In 2002 CEO Lafley pushed forward a series of initiatives designed to return focus to the company's established brands. The attention given to uninspired new launches during the late 1990s had caused performance of core products such as Pampers, Crest, Tampax and others to stall. Lafley gave new impetus to expanding and developing these staples of the business, cutting prices and boosting innovation in order to beat back competitors which had stolen P&G's market share over the previous few years. Performance began to improve even before the end of 2002, and has continued to bolster sales and profits ever since.
Meanwhile the acquisition drive continued. In 2003, after months of negotiation, P&G was able to finalise an agreement to acquire the controlling stake in German haircare giant Wella from its family shareholders. Another German brand, Nivea, slipped out of P&G's grasp. Having spent several years negotiating with Nivea's owners Beiersdorf regarding a takeover, a consortium led by Tchibo, already a minority shareholder in Beiersdorf, bought out controlling shareholder Allianz for E4.4bn. In 2004, P&G bought out its minority partner in China, Hutchison Whampoa, for $1.85bn. At the beginning of the following year, the group announced its biggest deal to-date, offering to buy The Gillette Company for around $53.4m in shares. The deal was approved by regulators with only a small number of adjustments, and was completed in October 2005.
Over the next few years the group gradually adopted a more streamlined structure with twin teams responsible for operations and brand building respectively, reporting to CEO Lafley. The brand building team was headed by Susan Arnold. Formerly vice chair & president, global beauty care, oral care, personal health and pharmaceuticals, she took up a new central role as president, global business units in July 2007. Operations were overseen by Bob McDonald, named as chief operating officer at around the same time. The two were widely seen as rivals for the top job. That competition finally came to an end in March 2009, when Arnold announced her resignation. A few months later, Bob McDonald was named as new group CEO.
Last full revision 19th April 2017
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