LVMH's brand portfolio is a catalogue of the finest things money can buy. It is the world's premier luxury goods company, controlling more than 70 exclusive brand names including Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Hennessy, Givenchy, Moet & Chandon, TAG Heuer and Guerlain. These have been accumulated over the years by LVMH's chairman, Bernard Arnault, earning him the title of France's richest man, as well as arguably the world's most influential arbiter of good taste. One of Arnault's few failures was the two-year battle to add ultra-chic Gucci to his collection. LVMH eventually admitted defeat in 2000, but instead negotiated a handsome payout for its interest. In 2010, Arnault began a similar assault on domestic rival Hermes, accumulating a 22% stake in the smaller company through the financial markets. Hermes' owners were implacable in their opposition to Arnault's investment in their company, but even after a successful court case have been unable to displace him entirely as a shareholder. There have been several other, mostly smaller acquistitions since then. Among the more notable are Bulgari jewellery in 2011 and Loro Piana luxury cashmere in 2013.
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Adbrands Daily Update 25th Nov 2019: LVMH's Bernard Arnault triumphed in his pursuit of Tiffany & Co, with an agreement to acquire the hard-pressed jeweller for $16.9bn including debt. It's LVMH's priciest deal to-date and the biggest ever in the luxury sector. LVMH will pay $135 per share, just over a third more than the price at which Tiffany was trading one month ago. "We have an immense respect and admiration for Tiffany," said Arnault, "and intend to develop this jewel with the same dedication and commitment that we have applied to each and every one of our Maisons. We will be proud to have Tiffany sit alongside our iconic brands and look forward to ensuring that Tiffany continues to thrive for centuries to come." Once completed, the deal will more than double the revenues of LVMH's existing Watches & Jewellery division to over €8bn, and push the group's own topline above €50bn for the first time.
Adbrands Daily Update 28th Oct 2019: LVMH is back on the acquisition trail, eyeing up its first big ticket purchase since Loro Piana in 2013. The French group has confirmed it made an approach to globally renowned jeweller Tiffany & Co that would value the US business at $14.5bn. At that price, if a deal materialises, it would be LVMH's biggest ever. However, analysts welcomed such a combination, pointing out the clear synergies between Tiffany and LVMH's existing Bulgari business, bought in 2011.
Adbrands Daily Update 13th May 2019: LVMH and singer Rihanna confirmed the launch of standalone luxury fashion label Fenty, "centered on Rihanna, developed by her, and takes shape with her vision in terms of ready-to-wear, shoes and accessories, including commerciality and communication of the brand." Such a development has been rumoured for several weeks. It will be the first time since the (ill-fated) launch of Christian Lacroix in 1987 that LVMH has launched a label from scratch rather than through acquisition. The group already partners with Rihanna on the Fenty Beauty cosmetics range. (Fenty is the singer's surname). LVMH CEO Bernard Arnault said "Everybody knows Rihanna as a wonderful singer, but through our partnership at Fenty Beauty, I discovered a true entrepreneur, a real CEO and a terrific leader ... To support Rihanna to start up the Fenty Maison, we have built a talented and multicultural team supported by the group resources. I am proud that LVMH is leading this venture and wish it will be a great success."
Adbrands Social Media 13th Feb 2019: "The Seven Worlds". Ridley Scott has been out of advertising for 15 years. Now he's back he just can't stop. An intervention may be required. A week after his Turkish Airlines extravaganza, here's an even more lavish spectacular for Hennessy cognac, developed in partnership with DDB Paris. With the very greatest of respect, Sir Ridley, please don't give up your day job in movies. Scott is one of the greatest feature film directors of the past 40 years, but once you move on from commercials it's very hard to go backwards again into shortform. As a result, this film resembles one of those bloated epics they used to make back in the 80s, like Hugh Hudson's infamous 'Swimming Pool' for B&H; then the most expensive ad ever made. It's all glitter - and such amazing glitter too - but with no substance, no personality, no humanity. And this is only the 60-second cut; wait until you see the full four-minute version. When it comes to ads, unless you're making a joke of epic, small is better.
Adbrands Daily Update 30th Jan 2019: Several companies have warned in the current results season of a slowdown in China, but there was no visible impact on LVMH. In the luxury market at least, Chinese consumers are still hungry for prestige goods. LVMH's group revenues for 2018 surged by 10% to a new high of €46.8bn while net profit powered up 18% to $6.35bn. All divisions reported growth in both revenues and profits; in the group's key fashion & leather goods flagship revenues were up by 19% and profits by over 20%.
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Free for all users | see full profile for current activities: Louis Vuitton learned his trade in the first half of the 19th century as an apprentice to Monsieur Marechal, who offered a service designing and packing trunks and luggage for the belle monde of Paris. Having built up a following of his own among Marechal's wealthier customers, in particular with the young Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III, Vuitton established his own premises in 1854 to make personalised luggage. He was most celebrated for his popularisation of flat-sided trunks, which could be easily stacked when travelling. With Empress Eugenie's endorsement, the business quickly gained a substantial international following, and Vuitton opened its first branch in London in 1885. The designs were widely copied by other companies, so Vuitton introduced its first trademarked design pattern in 1889, followed a few years later by the LV monogram still used today. Under the control of his son Georges, Vuitton established branches in America around the turn of the century and also moved into other travel goods as well as handbags.
The family-owned business continued to be successful throughout the 20th century, but took a huge leap forward in the late 1970s after it came under the control of Henri Racamier, a successful industrialist who had married into the Vuitton family. He oversaw a rapid international expansion of the company's retail network, as well as the purchase of like-minded businesses such as Givenchy and Veuve Clicquot. Sales rose to almost $2.5bn by 1987. In that year, Racamier engineered a merger of the company with the equally upmarket drinks business Moet Hennessy, which had a similar portfolio of luxury brands.
The Moet et Cie champagne house had been founded in around 1745, and became celebrated in French court circles after it was favoured by Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV. The house maintained its status over the turbulent years of the French Revolution, and was later a supplier to Emperor Napoleon. In 1832, management passed to Pierre-Gabriel Chandon de Briailles, who had married into the Moet family, and it was renamed Moet et Chandon. Its fame spread throughout Europe during the course of the 19th century. Later, during the 1920s, Moet et Chandon introduced what it promised would be the world's finest champagne, priced well above its existing wines, and which it named Dom Perignon after the the Benedictine monk who had first perfected the technique for double-fermenting wine to create champagne.
In the 1960s the house expanded further, acquiring rival champagnes Ruinart and Mercier. This was followed by diversification into fragrances, with the purchase of Parfums Christian Dior in 1970, and of Hennessy cognac in 1971. In 1973 the company established a winery in Napa Valley, California, under the name Domaine Chandon. Later under CEO Alain Chevalier the group also diversified into skincare with the purchase of RoC (now owned by Johnson & Johnson) and even cultivation of fine roses. However these latter businesses generated losses, and to avoid the possibility of a hostile takeover by another company, Moet Hennessy agreed to a merger of equals with fast-expanding but much smaller Louis Vuitton. However the disparity in size between the two businesses - Moet was almost two-thirds bigger than Vuitton - quickly created tensions between Moet Hennessy's Chevalier, appointed as executive chairman of the enlarged group, and Vuitton's Henri Racamier. The latter sought to bolster his position by calling upon the support of Bernard Arnault, a rising figure in the French business world, who had developed a reputation as a shrewd businessman and a tough adversary. This was to prove an unfortunate error on Racamier's part, and a stroke of immense good fortune for Arnault.
Bernard Arnault's business career had begun in the 1970s as an engineer for Ferret-Savinel, a large construction company controlled by his father. Later, he dabbled in the property development market first in France and then the US. In 1984, Arnault took control of holding company Financiere Agache, previously part-owned by his family, and used this as the platform for a series of acquisitions of weak French businesses. One of the first was Boussac, a near-bankrupt textiles group which owned various businesses including the legendary but ailing Christian Dior couture label and retail group Le Bon Marché. Arnault acquired the group and sold off everything but Dior and Bon Marché, but was frustrated to find that he could not reclaim the Parfums Dior license, which had been sold to Moet Hennessy several years earlier. In 1987, at Henri Racamier's prompting, Arnault purchased a stake in LVMH and lent his support to a campaign to oust Alain Chevalier as chairman. Almost immediately afterwards, he turned against Racamier, enlisting other shareholders to support his own campaign to force out his former partner. After an 18-month legal battle, he was successful and appointed himself as chief executive, while also transferring several of his own existing businesses into LVMH in return for a substantial shareholding. This effectively gave him complete control of the group.
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Arnault made a series of additional significant purchases. The Givenchy fashion house joined the group in 1988, and Arnault shocked the fashion world by unceremoniously sacking elderly founder Hubert de Givenchy, replacing him with British enfant terrible John Galliano, who quickly set about reinventing the famed label. To build its haute couture profile, Arnault transferred his Christian Lacroix and Kenzo fashion labels into LVMH in 1993. Further acquisitions included jewellers Fred in 1995, designer Celine and Loewe leather goods in 1996. Having worked his magic at Givenchy, John Galliano was moved across into Dior, and replaced at Givenchy by another iconoclastic British star, Alexander McQueen. Having established a thriving portfolio of fashion brands, Arnault moved on to enhance his retail and distribution interests, acquiring Asian-Pacific DFS duty-free shops in 1996 and Sephora perfumeries a year later.
That year, however, the group's drinks business was threatened when UK giants Guinness and Grand Metropolitan announced they were merging to form Diageo. Moet Hennessy and Guinness already owned significant stakes in each other, and the French company was also involved in a series of joint venture distribution deals with Grand Met. Arnault was not only insulted that he had not been consulted over that the merger, but also nervous that he might be shut out of his distribution partnerships and unhappy about being associated with Grand Met's Burger King chain. Initially he threatened to block the merger altogether, proposing instead that the Guinness and Grand Met drinks businesses should be spun off and merged with his own Moet Hennessy division. Diageo refused, but was eventually persuaded to pay off Arnault with around £270m in compensation, as well as a seat on the Diageo board and rights to distribute the full portfolio of Diageo drinks through a new distribution joint venture. LVMH also kept its shareholding in the enlarged drinks giant, worth just under £3bn, and Diageo inherited Guinness's 34% stake in Moet Hennessy.
With this triumph under his belt, Arnault began looking for other targets. At the tail end of 1998, he resigned his directorship of Diageo, and gradually began disposing of his shares to build up an acquisition war chest. His target was revealed at the end of the year, when the company announced it had secretly bought a 5% holding in famed fashion brand Gucci. Shortly afterwards, LVMH acquired further shares from fashion house Prada as well as through the markets to build up a 34% holding in Gucci by early 1999. But what began as a seemingly friendly alliance between the two companies quickly turned sour, leading to a bitter takeover battle. Uncharacteristically, this was a battle which Arnault eventually lost. [See Gucci profile for details of the subsequent battle for control]. LVMH finally sold its shares in Gucci at the end of 2001, consoling itself with a profit of €860m.
Never a man to do just one deal when he could be doing ten, Arnault took some time out during the Gucci battle to ink a number of other mostly internet-related deals, later consolidated into private incubator fund Europ@web. By 2000, Europ@web had built up stakes in more than 50 leading online businesses. Plans to launch an IPO of the group were later cancelled, but instead Arnault successfully sold a big shareholding in Europ@web to media and utility giant Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux for around $255m in 2000, shortly before the internet bubble burst. Most of Europ@web's investments did not survive the downturn, with fashion e-tailer Boo.com its most notorious failure. One notable success was the French ISP LibertySurf, later sold to Tiscali for a huge profit. Another unsuccessful diversion was an attempt to break the stranglehold of Sothebys and Christies on the international auction market. LVMH acquired the leading British auctioneers Phillips and Bonhams & Brooks, as well as Etude Tajan of France and famed Geneva art dealership De Pury & Luxembourg, merging them to create a new international auction house, Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg. However the economic downturn of 2001 hampered the company's development, and LVMH sold its majority stake to management in 2002.
Meanwhile, LVMH continued to add a string of prestigious fashion labels to its portfolio, including UK shirtmaker Thomas Pink and Italian fashion house Fendi. The purchase of Swiss sports watchmaker TAG Heuer ( for $751m) was the first of a series of acquisitions of luxury watch and jewellery makers. Other brands bought in late 1999 and early 2000 included Ebel, Chaument and Zenith. High profile US designer Donna Karan joined the portfolio in 2001. Also that year the group announced a joint venture with De Beers to market jewellery and other luxury products under the De Beers brands, and bought out Prada's stake in Fendi, to gain majority control of the Italian design house. Although economic slowdown, exacerbated by the shockwaves from the 9/11 New York terrorist attacks, hit all of LVMH's operations later in the year, performance steadily improved in 2002 and 2003. The group streamlined its portfolio during the period, selling off several under-performing businesses. Arnault has also kept much tighter control on acquisitions, adding only a few key businesses, compared to the numerous purchases of previous years.
In 2006, LVMH issued a lawsuit against the French subsidiary of auction giant eBay for acting as an intermediary in the sale of counterfeit Christian Dior and Louis Vuitton products. In 2008, a judge found in favour of the luxury group, and ordered eBay to pay a fine of almost €40m in compensation. It also instructed eBay to block sales of certain genuine products, because their sale via the auction site breached selective distribution agreements made by LVMH. A further €1.7m fine was made against eBay in November 2009, for failing to comply with the previous ruling. See full profile for current activities
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