Nissan Motor Company (Japan)

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Nissan is Japan's second largest carmaker (after Toyota, and well ahead of Honda), effectively controlled since 1999 by French group Renault. The company achieved a remarkable turnaround during the 2000s under trouble-shooting CEO Carlos Ghosn, parachuted in to overhaul the business. At the end of the previous decade Nissan had been struggling under the weight of a crippling debt burden. Rescue discussions with several manufacturers, including DaimlerChrysler and Ford, came to nothing. Then France's Renault stepped in, picking up a large stake in the company. After a year of focused and ruthless cost-cutting, as well as a sell-off of unnecessary peripheral businesses, the company delivered its best performance for more than a decade in 2001, and has continued to go from strength to strength, despite a short-lived slowdown in 2006 and 2007. Despite the impact of the 2011 Japanese Earthquake, the company reported record production levels and sales for that year. It has continued to grow steadily, and in 2016 agreed to acquire a controlling stake in domestic rival Mitsubishi Motors.

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Adbrands Weekly Update 29th Mar 2018: Renault and Nissan are in talks to merge as a single company, according to a report from Bloomberg this morning. That would mark a significant new step in their long-standing alliance, which will celebrate its 20th anniversary next year. Carlos Ghosn, current executive chairman of both companies, is leading the negotiations and would continue as head of a newly created combined entity. Currently, Renault has a 43% stake in Nissan; the Japanese company has 15% of its French partner, and the two companies share many back office functions as well as technology. Yet any potential deal is complicated by the fact that the French state also has a 15% stake in Renault. Nissan won't accept a closer relationship with Renault unless the government surrenders its shares.

Adbrands Weekly Update 11th Jan 2018: Volkswagen Group widened its lead as the world's biggest carmaker in 2017, with sales rising almost 4% to 10.41m cars and trucks. Toyota held 2nd place at 10.16m, but faces a growing threat from its Franco-Japanese rival. The addition of Mitsubishi to the Renault-Nissan Alliance puts that group close behind at 10.12m units. Hyundai Kia delivered the worst performance of any leading manufacturer, with sales down almost 9%, but held on to 4th place; General Motors stayed in the 5th spot, despite the sale of Opel/Vauxhall to PSA. Ford, Honda, FCA, PSA and Suzuki rounded out the remaining places in the Top Ten. In terms of individual brands, Toyota was safe in 1st place at 8.71m cars, ahead of VW at 6.83m units and Ford's 6.17m. However, Honda powered up two places to 5th position as a result of an 8% surge in sales, overtaking countrymate Nissan (up 4%), Hyundai slumped to 6th. Chevrolet, Kia, Renault and Mercedes rounded out the Top Ten.

Adbrands Weekly Update 26th Jan 2017: Volkswagen Group may have seized the #1 spot among global car companies for 2016, but Toyota remains the top-selling brand by a considerable margin, despite only a modest increase in volumes of less than 1%, according to figures from researcher Focus2Move. Even so, with sales of 8.48m vehicles it remains almost 2m units ahead of second-placed VW (6.54m). Ford remained in 3rd place (6.23m), but a slight fall by Hyundai - its first in a decade - allowed Nissan to edge into 4th place at 4.95m. Elsewhere in the Top 20, there were big jumps for Buick (up 16%) and Jeep (up 15%) in 16th and 17th place respectively, and also for Renault (up 14%) and Mercedes (up 11%) at #9 and #10. Further down the rankings, there was spectacular growth for homegrown Chinese brands. All hovering around the #30 mark, Geely, Baojun and BAIC delivered soaring growth of between 30% and 48% each. Several other established brands suffered worrying declines, including Mitsubishi (down 9%), Citroen (down 8%), Fiat (down 4%) and GMC and Dodge (both down 2%).

Adbrands Weekly Update 12th May 2016: Nissan is the latest white knight to rescue Mitsubishi Motors from a self-generated crisis. It has agreed to acquire a controlling 34% stake in its countrymate for around $2.2bn. The two businesses already have a manufacturing partnership in Japan. However, the smaller company is struggling to regain domestic trust after it admitted falsifying fuel economy data for at least four of the popular minicars it sells in Japan. In a statement Nissan-Renault CEO Carlos Ghosn said, "Nissan is determined to preserve and nurture the Mitsubishi Motors brand. We will help this company address the challenges it faces, particularly restoring consumer trust in the fuel-economy performance." Mitsubishi Motors suffered a similar crisis in 2004 when it admitted covering up serious faults in some of its cars that had caused fatalities. This led to the termination of an earlier partnership with what was then DaimlerChrysler.

Adbrands Weekly Update 17th Dec 2015: Renault and Nissan and the French state agreed a three-way stability covenant to resolve growing concerns at both auto companies over state interference in their governance. The fears had been prompted by the government's move earlier this year to increase its stake in Renault, in defiance of the latter's board; a move that would potentially give it more than 30% of Renault's voting shares under new company regulations. Renault is in turn the biggest single shareholder in Nissan, with 43%. However, under the new covenant, the state has agreed to cap its voting stake in Renault at under 20% other than in certain exceptional circumstances. At the same time, a new contract was agreed to guarantee non-interference in Nissan's self-government: the Japanese company was granted rights to acquire additional shares in Renault if it believes the French company is unduly interfering in its business. Currently, its cross-holding is limited to 15% of non-voting shares. While this agreement has calmed the waters for now, it has also prompted further questions regarding a full merger of Renault and Nissan. Not yet, said Carlos Ghosn, who is CEO of both companies. "It might one day make a lot of sense," he told reporters, "but certainly not today. I don't think we're ready."

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Free for all users | see full profile for current activities: The core of the business was founded by engineer Hashimoto Masujiro as Kwaishinsha Motor Car Works in 1911, initially to import and repair American-made vehicles. In 1914, the company put its first own-model into production, naming it DAT (the Japanese for 'hare') after the initials of the three principal investors (Den, Aoyama and Takeuchi). When a smaller size DAT car appeared in 1931 it was initially called 'son of Dat'. This quickly evolved into Datsun and the new brand name stuck. The business was formally established as Jidosha Seizo Company in 1933, under the leadership of Yoshisuke Aikawa, and taken over by shareholder Nihon Sangyo Co in 1934. The carmaker's name was changed that year to Nissan, combining the first two syllables of Nihon Sangyo's name. (Despite the parent company's name, the Datsun brand was maintained until the mid-1980s). The company carved out a niche with small, affordable cars which undercut the larger models imported from the US. But inevitably the Second World War brought problems, and Nissan was taken over by the Japanese government to produce military vehicles.

By the end of the war, Nissan had lost considerable ground to family-controlled Toyota which had stolen Nissan's dealerships and much of its market. But a deal with the UK's Austin Motor Company to manufacture and distribute their cars in Japan helped the company through the early part of the 1950s. As the decade progressed Nissan began to look at overseas markets. In 1958, the first Datsun sedan was exported to the US, followed by pick-up trucks a year later. In 1960, Nissan Motor Corporation was established in the US, with a spin-off business established in Mexico the following year. Europe came next, with a test delivery of 700 Datsun Bluebirds to Finland in 1962. In 1966, Nissan established the first Japanese-owned car factory in the US, and set up importers throughout mainland Europe, including Volkswagen in the UK and Germany. Models like the Bluebird and 510 sedan were successful in both the US and Europe, but it was the fuel crisis of the 1970s which really made Nissan's day. As rising petrol prices damaged sales of gas guzzlers, especially in the US, the low consumption Sunny reaped the rewards and Nissan's business boomed. By 1975, Nissan was the biggest car importer in the US.

The 1980s saw the development of a European manufacturing base. The company bought into Spanish maker Motor Iberica in 1980 and started production of the first local model, the Nissan Patrol, in 1983. Factories followed in Belgium and the UK, and by the middle of the decade Nissan was Europe's best-selling Japanese car brand. It was at this point that Nissan's problems began to emerge. Much of the brand's success in the UK was the result of hard work by the local dealership, a business run under license by Romanian refugee Octav Botnar. During the 1970s he had built Nissan's UK market share to more than 4%, but relations between the two companies were becoming increasingly strained, particularly after the establishment of Nissan's UK factory. The Japanese attempted to end the partnership at the end of the 1980s and take back control of their brand, but Botnar refused to give in. Shortly afterwards he was unexpectedly served with a massive £250m lawsuit from the UK's Inland Revenue, who accused him of avoiding income tax by passing fees from the business through several charitable trusts. Botnar claimed that Nissan had tipped off the taxman, and he fled the country. (Criminal charges were eventually dropped a few weeks before he died of cancer in 1998. A year later, the Inland Revenue managed to reclaim around £55m of back tax from Botnar's estate).

The publicity surrounding the Botnar case effectively destroyed the launch of Nissan's new Primera model in the UK, and also deprived the company of an effective UK dealer network. The group reportedly spent around £1.6bn rebuilding its network and upgrading the UK factories over the next few years. Business improved in 1989 with the successful launch of Nissan's spin-off luxury marque Infiniti into the US market. But as the 1990s progressed, financial problems got worse for Nissan worldwide. A disastrous joint venture with telecoms company DDI to provide cellular communications in 1992, was followed by a massive slump in domestic sales, and Nissan went into the red for five years, finally clawing back a profit in 1997, after massive cost-cutting and restructuring. But 1998 brought new pain, particularly in the US. Poor American sales, combined with a disastrous leasing program left the company nursing a $513m loss in North America alone. In its home market, as its market share slumped, Nissan was overtaken as Japan's #2 car company by Honda. Toyota overtook Nissan to become the #1 Japan brand in Europe a year later. Meanwhile the group's debts continued to escalate, rising to as much as $34.5bn, much of it in loans from the Japanese government as it tried to support massive underperformance within its leasing unit and at its diesel engines division.

In 1998 Nissan signed an alliance with DaimlerChrysler to produce commercial vehicles for the Far East. After that the German company spent several months trying to negotiate some form of broader rescue plan, but found no way around the biggest obstacle, the company's awesome debt. Just before a deal could be finalised in 1999, DaimlerChrysler got cold feet and walked away from the table, claiming it had enough on its hands just integrating its own merged business. The ball dropped by Daimler was caught by Renault, which had recently completed a sizeable internal reorganisation of its own. The French company acquired a 36.8% stake in Nissan for $5.4bn, and appointed senior executive Carlos Ghosn, who had already earned a nickname as "Le Cost Killer" for his work at Renault, to take control of Nissan's restructuring.

Among Ghosn's first initiatives was to combine the platform used by Renault's Clio and Nissan's Micra small cars. (The new models began production in 2003). Later in 1999, he announced plans to cut 21,000 jobs, close factories and terminate contracts with suppliers in a drive to save one trillion yen. The biggest cuts were in Japan, where car capacity was cut by 30%, with the closure of three factories and two engine facilities. Offices in New York and Washington were closed, the group set about unpicking the group's complex and largely unprofitable network of "favoured" suppliers, and sold off a string of peripheral businesses. More controversially Ghosn chose to sacrifice market share in order to regain profitability. The scale of the task was revealed a few months later when the group reported record losses for the year to March 2000 of Y684bn ($5.6bn) including restructuring costs.

By the end of 2000, it was becoming clear that Ghosn would succeed in his task of turning the company around. The group reported very strong half year profits, elevating Ghosn to the status of a national hero in Japan. Announcing the company's full-year performance in 2001, Ghosn announced that Nissan had "moved from the emergency room to the recovery room" with record profits of Y331bn ($2.7bn) on sales of Y6.1tn ($49.1bn). Group debt had fallen to $20.4bn. Incredibly, this was Nissan's first profit in four years and only its second since 1991. In October 2001 Renault and Nissan strengthened their alliance when Nissan acquired a 15% holding in the French company, while Renault exercised options to increase its stake in its Japanese partner to 44%. However both companies denied any intentions to merge completely.

In 2002 the company agreed to form a joint venture with China's third-largest motor manufacturer, state-run DongFeng, paying just over $1bn for a 50% stake in new company DongFeng Motor, which acquired all the existing operations of the Chinese business. The deal was the biggest foreign investment in a state-run Chinese company since Beijing joined the World Trade Organisation in 2001. In 2003 the group announced the recall of 2.55m cars worldwide as a result of a mechanical fault, the largest recall by a Japanese carmaker. The fault, which could cause cars to stall, was not dangerous, but was embarrassing given Nissan's reputation for high quality engineering. The cost of the recall, estimated at around Y16bn, was already covered by provisions in Nissan's accounts. In a 2004 Nikkei newspaper survey of senior Japanese executives, Carlos Ghosn was voted the country's single most admired manager, ahead of Toyota's Hiroshi Okuda and Canon's Fujio Mitarai, and the only foreigner in the top 20. In 2005, in an unprecedented move which says much for the increasing integration of Renault and Nissan, he succeeded Louis Schweitzer as CEO of Renault, while also retaining his position at Nissan.

In 2008, Nissan agreed a manufacturing alliance with Chrysler, which was initially seen as a first step to making the American company a third partner in the Renault-Nissan worldwide alliance. The companies were preparing to manufacturing each other's models from 2009. However, Chrysler's bankruptcy and subsequent takeover by Fiat put an end to all such ideas, and the partnership was abandoned. See full profile for current activities

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