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The John Lewis Partnership is one of the UK's leading retail groups, operating a national network of department stores under the John Lewis name, as well as supermarket chain Waitrose and a small collection of other businesses. Uniquely among major UK retailers, the company remains a mutual partnership, jointly owned by almost 90,000 permanent staff. With a nationwide reputation for fairly priced quality goods, John Lewis is generally regarded as the preferred home goods retailer for the British middle classes, and both brands traditionally top any survey of the country's "best-loved" retailers. In recent years the group has enjoyed reasonably strong financial performance, and has expanded its Waitrose business considerably through the purchase of outlets from other chains. However, turmoil within the UK grocery market and competition from online retailers have weighed on performance since 2015.
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|John Lewis Partnership
London SW1P 1BX
Tel: 44 (0)207 828 1000
171 Victoria Street
London SW1E 5NN
Tel: 44 (0)207 828 1000
Berkshire RG12 8YA
Tel: 44 (0)1344 825503
Adbrands Weekly Update 24th Aug 2017: The rise and rise of the German discounters continues. Latest figures from Kantar Worldpanel for UK grocery retail share show Lidl overtaking Waitrose for the first time to become the local #7 food retailer. Lidl's market share for the 12 weeks to August 13th hit a new high of 5.2%, fractionally ahead of Waitrose at 5.1%. Aldi retained the #5 spot on 7.0%, behind Tesco, Sainsbury's, Asda and Morrisons. [Update: Lidl slipped back behind Waitrose again in October].
Adbrands Weekly Update 17th Nov 2016: Ads Of The Week: "Home For Christmas". The team at Adam&Eve DDB must work even harder at Christmas than any other time of the year. How many different Christmas ads can an agency come up with all at the same time? After John Lewis last week (and Harvey Nichols and Temptations Treats and and and...) here's their less showy but no less lovely spot for John Lewis's sister chain Waitrose. Actually its low-key, almost shy charm adds immeasurably to its effect. A simple tale, told with great sensitivity. Enchanting. And the CGI is more impressive and even more invisible than with John Lewis's foxes and badgers. No, in the real world, you can't train a robin to do this stuff, so this one is created entirely in a computer.
Adbrands Weekly Update 10th Nov 2016: Ads Of The Week: "Buster the Boxer". Well here it is at last. The John Lewis Christmas 2016 campaign from Adam&Eve DDB. And it's pretty good. Not soppy or weird, like last year's Man On The Moon, and it checks all the right boxes. Animals, tick. Children, tick. Snow, tick. Oddly, the ad seems in some way influenced by Sainsbury's widely admired Mog spot last year, in which animals interacted in an unusual and entertaining way with the human world. Here, though, the CGI is even more accomplished. Astounding in fact. You truly believe your eyes for that midnight bouncing festival. The only thing missing of course, as any garden owner knows, is all the droppings they would, in reality, have left behind all over the trampoline.
Adbrands Weekly Update 21st Jan 2016: Ads Of The Week: "Pick Your Own Offers". Upscale British supermarket Waitrose has decided to fight back against discounters Aldi and Lidl with a new promo, offering 20% off shoppers' ten most regular purchases. Adam&Eve DDB gets the message across with typically elegant and imaginative efficiency. It's why they're still London's finest agency. And though we're not especially fond of the hokey old songs Waitrose has used to back its last three ads we can't deny they do the job perfectly.
Adbrands Weekly Update 5th Nov 2015: Ads of the Week: "What makes your Christmas?". Did anyone realise it's almost Christmas? Clearly someone flicked the holiday switch on November 1st, because the seasonal spots have been coming thick and fast all week. Adam&Eve DDB have been especially busy, with an excellent, ever so slightly profane spot for Mulberry (over on our Facebook page) and the hotly anticipated John Lewis film breaking tomorrow (that'll be on our Facebook page too). However this is their Christmas offering for Waitrose, an improvement in our view on their recent Autumnal debut for the client. Clearly the trend this holiday season, based on the contenders so far this year, is for homely slice-of-life vignettes offering little snapshots of everyone's family celebration. Nicely done, and the food all looks yummy. What more could a supermarket ask for?
Brands & Activities
John Lewis is one of the UK's best-known retail brands, a chain of 32 department stores spread across the country, selling a wide variety of private label and third-party apparel, as well as soft furnishings, consumer electronics and appliances and other goods. Its biggest stores also have their own food hall, and there is also a small group of 14 separate John Lewis At Home specialist stores, mainly located within shopping centres and selling only appliances and electronics. Until comparatively recently, several stores outside London operated under different names. Almost all of these have been converted to the John Lewis brand. The sole exception is now Peter Jones in Sloane Square, London. Knight & Lee near Portsmouth was replaced in 2012 by a newly constructed John Lewis store. Until recently, all stores were within the UK. The first non-UK outlet opened in Dublin in 2011.
Long established as a regular haunt for middle class shoppers, John Lewis is famous for its "Never knowingly undersold" guarantee. Traditionally, the store promised to match the price of any cheaper retailer for any goods it sold. Fierce competition from online sellers forced the group to adapt this policy in 2006, when e-commerce retailers were excluded from that guarantee. In 2007 the group further restricted the guarantee so that it applied only to goods sold within an eight-mile radius of an existing store so that the price "will always be as low as the lowest price in the neighbourhood". Gradually though it has returned to its original promise, dropping the eight-mile restriction in 2009, and then expanding it to cover online rivals from 2011. John Lewis has around 19% share of the UK department store sector, and regularly tops rankings as the UK's favourite store. It also offers a fast-growing e-commerce service. This was opened up for delivery to Europe and other international markets during 2011, and now contributes 28% of total sales. For the year ending January 2016, John Lewis department stores reported gross sales of £4.56bn, up 3%, and operating profits of £250m.
Waitrose is the group's supermarket division, comprising a chain of 345 stores around the UK. The chain has expanded considerably in recent years, having acquired a number of outlets from Safeway, Somerfield and Morrisons. This allowed it to move out of its traditional core market of South-West England and it now has a target of managing 400 stores by 2017. It is currently the UK's 7th largest grocer, having been overtaken in 2015 by Aldi. However, its share of the UK grocery market reached an all-time high in Oct 2016 of 5.4% (52 weeks to 9th Oct, Kantar), reflecting the fierce competitive pressure in the sector as a whole. In 2009 it moved for the first time into the convenience store market, opening a number of smaller stores to compete with M&S Simply Food outlets and the convenience outlets of Sainsbury and Tesco. These include motorway service station outlets in partnership with Shell and Welcome Break. There is also a strategic alliance with Boots, which operates pharmacy concessions in some Waitrose supermarkets. In an extension of that arrangement, Boots stocks selected Waitrose food products.
Although considerably smaller in size than the country's big four supermarkets, Waitrose is known for the quality and freshness of its food and especially for its organic produce. It was the first supermarket in the UK to sell organic food, in 1983, and now has a disproportionately high 18% share of the UK organic foods market. Reinforcing its prestige position, the store recruited two of the UK's most celebrated cooks, Delia Smith and Heston Blumenthal as brand ambassadors during 2010. Delia Smith has since retired, but Blumenthal continues to work with the chain. Stores sells a broad variety of fresh and packaged food and drink comprising private label as well as national brands, as well as household staples. In price terms, it is positioned towards the top end of the market, closer in spirit to Marks & Spencer than to Morrisons.
Waitrose also offers two home shopping alternatives. Ocado is an independent service, but it offers groceries and other goods sourced from Waitrose stores. It originally had a significant shareholding in this independent business, but transferred its 29% stake in 2008 to the John Lewis Partnership employees' pension fund. It renewed its partnership with Ocado for a further ten years in 2010. However, Waitorse also offers its own Waitrose Delivers service from selected stores.
After several years of strong financial growth, Waitrose was dented by the turmoil within the UK grocery market in 2014 and 2015. For the year ending January 2016, gross sales slipped back from the previosu year's high of £6.51bn to £6.46bn. Operating profit fell for the second consecutive year, to £233m.
The group produces a large proportion of the furnishings, fabrics and curtains it sells at John Lewis at its own mill, Herbert Parkinson, acquired in 1953. However other manufacturing businesses have been sold off to management or other suppliers. Much of the fresh produce sold by Waitrose is sourced from the company's own farm, the Leckford Estate, which covers 4,000 acres in Hampshire.
A more recent addition to the Partnership's portfolio was Greenbee, an online service introduced in 2006 which offered a range of selected products and services mainly in travel, leisure and financial services in conjunction with third party suppliers including AXA, Friends Provident, Expedia, Cox & Kings and See Tickets. Take-up of the service was limited and in 2010 the Greenbee brand was terminated. Instead the group continues to offer insurance services under the John Lewis name.
The group transferred management of its long-standing John Lewis account customer scheme to HSBC in 2004, and subsequently replaced the old charge account with a new MasterCard credit card, the Partnership Card.
The company is virtually unique among large commercial organisations in the UK in that it adheres to a strict constitution originally devised by its founder as an "experiment in industrial democracy". The business is jointly owned by its 91,500 permanent employees, who are known as partners. There are no outside shareholders, and partners are rewarded with a wide range of social and financial benefits including a generous profit-share scheme.
Group gross sales for the year topped £10bn for the first time for the year ending January 2014, and have continued to rise since, though the increase for ye 2016 was less than 1% to £11.02bn (or £9.75bn net of VAT). However profit before Partnership bonuses, tax and exceptionals slipped for the second year to £306m, because of higher pension charges as well as the impact of competition within the grocery market. Each partner received a tax-free bonus equivalent to 10% of salary (down from 15% two years before), making a combined payout of £145m.
Sir Charlie Mayfield is chairman of the John Lewis Partnership. (He was knighted in summer 2013 for services to industry). Paula Nickolds replaced Andy Street as managing director of John Lewis in Jan 2017, becoming the first woman to lead that business. (Street went into politics, becoming Mayor of the West Midlands). Other senior managers include Berangere Michel (finance director), Dino Rocos (operations director), Andrew Murphy (group productivity director) and Jill Little (strategy director). Patrick Lewis is director of partnership services.
The John Lewis marketing team is headed by Craig Inglis (customer director), supported by Becky Brock (head of marketing), Lloyd Page (head of online marketing), Rachel Swift (head of brand marketing), Chris Bates (head of customer marketing), Lorna Brown (head of home & electricals marketing), Lucy Heyes (marketing manager, brand), Sarah Emerson (marketing manager, indurance), Kirsty Rockey (proposition development manager), and Emma Wood (marketing manager, fashion & beauty).
Mark Price announced his resignation as managing director of Waitrose from early 2016 to become a government minister for trade & development. He was succeeded by retail director Rob Collins, who was in turn replaced by Ben Stimson. Marketing director Rupert Thomas replaced Mark Williamson as commercial director in early 2017; Martin George was appointed as interim customer director.
Having served his apprenticeship, John Lewis opened a draper's shop in London's Oxford Street in 1864, and gradually built up the business into a substantial department store, annexing the premises of neighbouring retailers and taking full advantage of the booming economy of the Victorian era. In 1905, he also acquired control of a rival store in Sloane Square, Chelsea, after the death of its own founder, Peter Jones. At around the same time, John Lewis was joined in the business by his sons, John Spedan Lewis and Oswald Lewis. (Spedan's unconventional name was chosen in tribute to John Lewis's beloved aunt, Anne Speed).
A radical thinker for his time, John Spedan Lewis became increasingly uncomfortable with the knowledge that the annual salary he and his family enjoyed was equal to the total sum paid to the entire workforce at both the stores they owned. During the two-year convalescence that followed a riding accident, Spedan mulled over the social injustices of the age and vowed to do something about them. Upon returning to work, he began to establish new democratic methods and better working conditions within the stores, setting up a staff committees to advise on the running of the business. These and other radical ideas, such as a proposal to offer employees shorter working days as well as an third week of paid annual holiday, led to growing tension within the family. In 1914, John Lewis Sr removed Spedan from the management board of the main store in Oxford Street, but gave him instead full control over Peter Jones, then still making large losses. Spedan promptly introduced all of his radical methods in his new domain. Despite the economic Depression of the early 1920s, these slowly began to deliver results, and he was able to return Peter Jones to profit by the mid 1920s, at which point he introduced a new scheme to share those profits among staff. In 1925, Spedan also introduced a promise to customers that Peter Jones would never be knowingly undersold, guaranteeing to refund the difference if a customer could find the same item for less elsewhere.
Younger brother Oswald sold his shareholding in the business to Spedan in 1925. Following their father's death in 1928, John Spedan Lewis inherited control of both stores, and set about taking the next step in his transformation of the business by introducing a revolutionary new ownership structure. He transferred full ownership of the business to a trust, distributing part of the equity in the business among the group's employees. He also devised a constitution which, then as now, decreed the key operating principles for the business. The most significant of these decreed that the ultimate purpose of the new John Lewis Partnership was "the happiness of all its members through their worthwhile and satisfying employment in a successful business", sharing "the responsibilities of ownership as well as its rewards - profit, knowledge and power".
During the 1930s the business expanded considerably, first by acquiring its first store outside London, Jessop & Son of Nottingham, and then with the purchase of Waitrose. This was a chain of 10 small grocer's shops, originally established in London in 1904 by Wallace Waite, Arthur Rose and David Taylor, under the name Waite, Rose & Taylor. (Taylor left a few years later and the company adopted the abbreviation Waitrose in 1908). In 1940, John Lewis established a regional network for the first time with the purchase of another 15 department stores around the country previously controlled by rival group Selfridges. These included Trewins of Watford, Heelas of Reading, Robert Sayle in Cambridge, Cole Brothers of Sheffield and others.
Spedan Lewis retired from the business in 1955, gifting his remaining shares in the business as well as his country estate in Leckford, Hampshire to the Partnership. He died in 1963. Management of the group transferred to Bernard Miller and then in the early 1970s to Spedan's nephew Peter Lewis. Both men continued the expansion of the group's operations, introducing the first Waitrose supermarket in 1955 and building its network through the establishment of new stores.
The group's unique ownership structure has remained intact ever since its introduction by Spedan Lewis. In the late 1990s, after a sharp fall in profitability, there were calls from some partners to demutualise the business and float it as a public company. However no members of the group's guiding council supported the idea and it was abandoned.
Last full revision 1st April 2016
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