Leo Burnett is among the world's best-known agency brands, now part of Publicis Groupe. In its heyday it was responsible for creating what has become known as the "Chicago School" of advertising, which made a virtue of simplicity and clarity, and was most strongly defined by the use of brand mascots, fictional characters who were used to personify individual brands. Uncle Ben, the Jolly Green Giant, Tony the Tiger, the Pillsbury Dough-Boy and the Marlboro Man were all Burnett inventions. The agency capped the 1990s with a showstopping deal which combined the forces of three major agency groups. In 1999, Burnett's acquired D'Arcy parent MacManus, stealing that business from under Interpublic's nose for $1bn; then sold a 20% stake in the combined group to Japanese giant Dentsu for a rumoured $400m to create one of the world's biggest marketing groups, named Bcom3. The final twist came in 2002 with capture of Bcom3 by Publicis, and the subsequent merger of the D'Arcy network into Burnett. In 2007, Leo Burnett merged with below-the-line unit Arc Worldwide under a single management team, although it continues to use both brand names. It remains one of the world's most admired creative agencies, with a reputation for witty, imaginative and emotionally resonant advertising.
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Adbrands Weekly Update 29th Nov 2018: "Give In To Giving". It's not a Christmas ad of course, but Dubai-based bank Emirates NBD is doing its bit for the season of goodwill to all men. Leo Burnett Middle East is behind this charming moral tale which supports the bank's Exchanger volunteer programme in UAE. Don't keep your hands stuck in your own pockets - reach out and offer some help to people who need it.
Adbrands Social Media 5th Sep 2018: "No Crisis". Running out of mobile phone battery is definitely one of those First World problems. Leo Burnett's Israel office seeks to put those concerns into perspective with an entertaining musical number on behalf of Samsung. It just goes to show how egalitarian Leo Burnett's management of the Samsung account is. Far from being concentrated at a few global hubs, and then repackaged for individual markets, creative output is often made locally. As a result, even Burnett's smaller outposts get a chance to show what they're made of. If it wasn't in Hebrew, this particular spot would be fully deserving of a wider airing. Maybe they could consider remaking it in English.
Adbrands Weekly Update 16th Aug 2018: Ads of the Week "Surprisingly Painless". "Whatever happened to Dennis Quaid, the highly likeable star of 80s sci-fi romp Innerspace?" That's what the creative team at Leo Burnett Chicago was asking itself when batting around ideas for a rebrand for Allstate's second string insurance brand Esurance. So here he is in an enjoyably self-mocking campaign that is itself also highly likeable. Quaid does a fine job of poking fun at himself and the advertising industry in general. And let's face it, there's nothing ad industry insiders love more than ads about ads.
Adbrands Social Media 15th Aug 2018: Is there something your friends aren't telling you? This entertaining campaign from Leo Burnett Thailand is for local product Focus. We won't spoil the surprise by telling you upfront what kind of product that is. You'll have to work it out for yourself. We didn't get it until the final product shot. Though of course most Thai consumers at whom the ad is aimed will already know... It's a clever reminder for teenage boys that there are more important things to think about than their image.
Adbrands Weekly Update 2nd Aug 2018: Ads of the Week: "The Trip You Promised". Broken promises to friends, family and dates about holiday plans come back to haunt a succession of unlucky individuals in this offbeat spot for China Airlines from Leo Burnett's Taiwanese outpost. (Confusingly, despite its name, China Airlines is not actually a Chinese airline, but the largest carrier in Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, in contrast to its rival and sometime enemy, the People's Republic of China). We're often surprised by the subtle and slightly twisted sense of humour displayed by some Asian advertising, even for major brands. You could never imagine an ad like this getting approved by any Western airline.
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Free for all users | see full profile for current activities: Of all of the US ad industry legends, Leo Burnett's is one of the most enduring. Almost 40 years after the founder's death, rival agencies complain that Burnett's can still swing a pitch by showing a 50-year-old film of the master himself explaining his advertising philosophy. This is even more astonishing considering that Burnett himself was hardly a dynamic or attractive figure - short, rumpled, usually covered in cigarette ash, with a large paunch, double chin and prominent lower lip. In person, he often appeared distracted. According to a memorable anecdote, he emerged one day from Chicago’s train station, deep in thought about a particular client’s advertising, got into a cab and asked the driver to take him to the 15th floor. When called upon to deliver unprepared remarks, he was oddly inarticulate, and sometimes inaudible. "The most imposing voice Leo Burnett can muster to this day," said copy chief William Tyler in 1949, "is a medium-low mumble with a slight gurgling overtone."
But Burnett's approach to advertising set a distinct style, the so-called "Chicago school", named after the city where the agency established itself. Its key virtues were simplicity and drama. "There is an inherent drama in every product," Burnett claimed. "Our job is to dig for it and capitalize on it." In many cases this meant encouraging an emotional bond between consumers and his clients' products, by creating a visual symbol that would leave consumers with a "brand picture engraved on their consciousness". Burnett did this most successfully with a series of friendly iconic characters: the Jolly Green Giant, the Pillsbury Dough-boy, Tony the Tiger or the Marlboro Man. But sometimes this visual symbolism was embodied in other ways. In a 1945 press campaign for the American Meat Institute for example, the agency broke the unwritten rule that said that the depiction of uncooked meat in advertising was distasteful. "We convinced ourselves that the image of meat should be a virile one, best expressed in red meat." Instead Burnett's ads showed thick slices of raw red meat set against a bright red background. "Red against red was a trick," he explained, "but it was a natural thing to do. It just intensified the red concept and the virility and everything else we were trying to express. This was inherent drama in its purest form."
Leo Burnett was born in 1892 in a small town in Michigan and spent his childhood helping out in the family's dry goods store, for which he composed and hand-lettered advertising billposters. After graduating from the University of Michigan, he began a career in journalism, spending time as a police reporter, and eventually, from around 1915, as editor of the house magazine for Cadillac. There he worked under the already celebrated Theodore MacManus (who went on to form the MacManus agency, later part of DMB&B). Burnett moved on from Cadillac after a year or two, serving time in a small agency in Indianapolis, before accepting a job as creative head of Erwin Wasey in Chicago, a city then bristling with resentment over New York’s meteoric rise to become the de facto capital of the American ad industry.
The early success of FCB forerunner Lord & Thomas during the 1910s had established Chicago as America's first advertising capital, but that title had begun to transfer to New York before that end of the decade. By the 1930s, Chicago was placed a distant second to its rival city, and attempted to make up for that fact with an edgy defensiveness. Draper Daniels, an executive who had moved from New York initially to head up the Chicago office of Y&R summed up the difference between the two cities thus: "A Chicago advertising man, after working two days and two nights on a rush job, will tell you he worked on it four days and four nights. A New Yorker, after working two days and two nights on a rush job, will try to make you believe he did it on the back of an envelope while riding to work on the train."
By 1935, a steady stream of talented executives were being tempted away from Erwin Wasey and other Chicago agencies to better jobs in New York. Most seriously of all, Wasey president Don Kudner himself jumped ship, taking the Buick account with him. Burnett felt it was too late to make that move himself, especially after he was turned down for a job by Benton & Bowles as copy supervisor, and he resigned himself to his situation. It took his friend and protégé Dewitt (Jack) O’Kieffe to inspire him to action. O’Kieffe told Burnett that he had himself been accepted by Benton & Bowles, and that he would take that position in New York unless Leo himself quit and set up his own agency.
Yet the omens hardly seemed promising. Burnett was no spring chicken, already 42, and hardly the model of a thrusting young entrepreneur. Yet he did have a clear idea about the sort of advertising he wanted to produce. "There is entirely too much dull advertising," he complained in an article in trade magazine Printers Ink in 1936. "Pages and pages of dull, stupid, interesting copy that does not offer the reader anything in return for his time taken reading it." According to industry legend, to brighten up the new office of The Leo Burnett Company on its first day of business, the receptionist put a bowl of apples on front desk. When word got around Chicago that Leo Burnett was serving apples to his visitors, a newspaper columnist joked, "It won’t be long till Leo Burnett is selling apples on the street corner instead of giving them away." For years afterwards, apples became the agency's trademark although their colour changed from the red apples favoured by Burnett himself to the green ones used by the agency today. The master's touch is also still visible in the company's logo, which symbolizes his much-quoted maxim, "When you reach for the stars, you may not quite get one, but you won't come up with a handful of mud either."
Burnett and his team started with three clients they brought with them from Erwin Wasey: Realsilk Hosiery, Hoover and the Minnesota Valley Canning Company. These were all small accounts, so they set out to capture a bigger beast, and set their caps at Hershey, America's best-selling confectioner but renowned as a company that didn’t advertise. Convinced it was just a question of delivering better copy, Burnett and O’Kieffe made a trip to Hershey to present. They were received politely, but got no business. They had a similar reception back in Chicago at Wrigley. After a full year in business, The Leo Burnett Company had failed to win a single new account.
Yet gradually, Burnett's existing accounts were beginning to look promising. The agency's work for Minnesota Valley Canning Company quickly became a family favourite. One of that client's main brands was a line of tinned vegetables which it marketed under the name Green Giant. Burnett conceived a new approach for the company, and came up with a friendly green giant character. The same personality-driven approach led to the creation of the Pillsbury Dough-boy and Tony the Tiger in the 1950s. Burnett also greatly enhanced the potential of the agency by recruiting Richard Heath, formerly the star advertising sales director for Ladies Home Journal, as EVP. Heath was the virtual opposite of Burnett, a tall, handsome and genial salesman. "Leo wrote the gospel," said Draper Daniels, later chairman of Burnett's executive committee, "but Dick Heath preached it to the heathen. Together they did what neither of them could have done alone."
But it was the campaign for Marlboro which lifted Burnett's into the upper ranks of the industry. Philip Morris was on the verge of ditching its unsuccessful new women's cigarette, but gave Leo Burnett one last chance to save it. Encouraged by the sudden emergence of a distinct men's market in the early 1950s - Playboy magazine had launched the previous year with considerable success - Burnett advised Philip Morris to abandon the brand's previous image altogether, and repackage Marlboro as a rugged man's smoke. (See Marlboro profile for more). Introduced in New York in 1955, the new Marlboro became the top-selling filtered cigarette almost literally overnight.
The huge success of Marlboro attracted other important clients, including Maytag appliances and United Airlines in 1955, and Allstate Insurance and Star-Kist tuna in 1957. By the end of that decade, Leo Burnett had entered the rarefied heights as the biggest agency outside New York, with billings exceeding $100m. Yet the agency still prided itself on doing things differently from its Madison Ave counterparts. For years, Burnett refused to open a full agency in New York, arguing that "Ideas don't know where they are born." Burnett also paid no attention to research, then the backbone of agencies such as McCann, JWT and Y&R, and practically went out of his way to utilise techniques which Gallup said didn’t work, such as copy over tint blocks or pictures. Burnett's approach to advertising was almost entirely instinctive, driven by gut feeling not market research. Unlike other evangelists of advertising, Burnett did not attempt to educate his audience or talk down to it. To him, consumers were Ordinary Joes just like him. "I like to think that we Chicago ad-makers are all working stiffs," he said in a 1967 interview with Advertising Age. "I like to imagine that Chicago copywriters spit on their hands before picking up the big, black pencils.”
Indeed Burnett himself was rarely separated from his own thick black pencil, with which he marked up subordinates' work and which often left characteristic lead smudges on his fingers and face. (In recent years, this has replaced a green apple as a symbol of the agency). He played an unrelentingly central role within the agency, sitting in on almost all creative meetings, so much so that many junior employees felt undervalued and underutilised. The company’s senior management committee, known as the Plans Board, held regular meetings to review the work of the creative department. Yet most of the work submitted was routinely rejected and sent back to be done again. "Once," according to Draper Daniels, "he killed a campaign simply by remaining silent for several painful minutes and finally mumbling, 'I’m afraid what's wrong with it is that it is merely good'". This was often disheartening for junior creatives, but few could argue with the brilliance of the corrections and changes Burnett made.
He certainly didn’t show the same autocratic style as Marion Harper over at McCann, but he was just as driven. It was generally understood at the agency that the only holiday the boss ever took was Christmas, and he invariably worked late into the night at the office during the week, and in his study at home over weekends, despite the demands of his wife and family. "It must be disconcerting for three highly intelligent children to see their father only if they happen to get up for a glass of water during the night,” recounted copy chief William Tyler in Advertising & Selling magazine. Yet together with DDB and O&M, Burnett's was regarded as one of the pioneers of the new form of creative advertising that was gradually dominating the industry. Burnett was himself generous with the respect he felt for his younger peers. At one point, he wrote a note to David Ogilvy saying "I guess half my 'Ads Worth Saving' file is composed of tearsheets of ads from your shop and Bill Bernbach's. If I weren’t getting so darned old, I think I would probably start my own agency."
As Leo Burnett's US clients expanded their presence overseas during the 1960s and 1970s, the agency went with them. In 1962, a London office was set up when the company bought into UK agency Leggett Nicholson. Back home, Burnett strengthened its hold on key client General Motors in 1967 by acquiring Detroit agency DP Brother & Co, who handled GM's' Oldsmobile brand. Other key developments were the acquisition in 1969 of the London Press Exchange, a network of 20 agencies in Europe, Asia and Latin America, followed by Australia's Jackson Wain in 1970. Additional satellites followed. By the time Leo Burnett himself died in 1971, his agency was the world's fifth largest, with 39 offices around the globe and billings of more than $400m. In 1980, Burnett's German office merged with local creative shop Luerzer & Conrad to form Luerzer, Conrad & Leo Burnett, later Michael Conrad & Leo Burnett. Demonstrating that its power to conceive personality icons was in no way diminished, Leo Burnett USA conceived crash test dummies Vince and Larry for a Department of Transportation safety campaign in 1985. The characters developed a life of their own outside the ads, and even went on to spawn their own range of toys and an animated cartoon series.
To protect its market position during the 1990s, the agency began to establish partnerships with like-minded agencies or marketing services companies in the US and overseas. Spanish agency Vitruvio was acquired in 1990, and seven years later the group purchased a 49% holding in highly regarded UK agency Bartle Bogle Hegarty. In fact 1997 was very much a turning point for the group. Still independent in an age of consolidation, Burnett's saw a few of its most loyal clients attracted elsewhere by the broader range of services offered by Omnicom and Interpublic. At the same time, creative output in the US had begun to suffer. The loss of United Airlines and of Burnett's lead role on the $300m McDonalds US account were major blows, as were the departure of Miller Lite, Kellogg's Raisin Bran and Samsonite luggage. This resulted in a boardroom coup which led to the removal of CEO Bill Lynch and COO Jim Jenness. Group chairman and former CEO Richard Fizdale took back the latter role and the resulting improvement in the company's fortunes was visible.
The following year was an important and eventful one. To make the company quicker on its feet, Leo Burnett USA was carved up into seven mini-agencies in 1997, each with its own account handling, creative and management functions. Known as the "alphabet agencies", Agency A, Agency B and through to G worked as dedicated units on specific accounts. Proof that the system worked came when the agency won back the Heinz Tomato Ketchup account it had lost five years earlier. (However, other clients became increasingly frustrated with the alphabet structure and it was eventually phased out in 1999). Also in 1997, the agency rebranded its US media department as Starcom, and began rolling out that brand worldwide. A year later the group came close to a global merger of Starcom with MacManus's like-minded MediaVest division, but the deal collapsed at the last minute after disagreements over the structure of the US division of the new company.
A few months later, the group emphasised its continuing independence by forming a separate holding company, the Leo Group, to manage the Leo Burnett network, Starcom and the holding in BBH as separate entities. As a result, no one expected November 1999's bombshell, in which Leo Burnett was revealed as the architect behind a three-way deal with MacManus and Dentsu. The deal was formalised early in 2000, and at the end of the year Burnett turned a new page, appointing its first female head, in the form of Linda Wolf, previously head of the North American business. But the ink had barely dried on the page before Bcom3 was in turn gobbled up by Publicis. The network was greatly enhanced by its subsequent absorption of D'Arcy, which was folded into Leo Burnett in most territories worldwide.
At the end of its first year under Publicis ownership, the agency was shaken up by several senior management changes. Both Bob Brennan, the agency's worldwide president, and COO Stephen Gatfield left the network abruptly in September 2003. Tom Bernadin was recruited from Lowe in early 2004 to become CEO of Leo Burnett North America and worldwide president. He replaced Linda Wolf as chairman & CEO of Leo Burnett Worldwide following her retirement at the end of April 2005. North American chief creative officer Cheryl Berman left in 2006. See full profile for current activities
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